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Nutrition for Sports Performance Your Sports Nutrition Game Plan Canadian Version PowerPoint Presentation
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Nutrition for Sports Performance Your Sports Nutrition Game Plan Canadian Version

Nutrition for Sports Performance Your Sports Nutrition Game Plan Canadian Version

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Nutrition for Sports Performance Your Sports Nutrition Game Plan Canadian Version

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  1. Nutrition for Sports Performance Your Sports Nutrition Game Plan Canadian Version

  2. Sports Nutrition is the practical science of hydrating and fueling before, during, and after exercise Executed properly, sports nutrition can help promote training and performance Done incorrectly or ignored, it can derail training and hamper performance 1

  3. YOUR SPORTS NUTRITION GAME PLANOVERVIEW • The 3 Principles of Sports Nutrition • Your Sports Nutrition • Game Plan • Healthy Eating Tips for Athletes • Stay hydrated • Provide fuel for your muscles • Promote recovery after exercise

  4. THE 3 PRINCIPLES OF SPORTS NUTRITION Apply these principles correctly as part of your training — it will help you compete at your best • Stay hydrated • Provide fuel for your muscles • Promote recovery after exercise 3

  5. THE 3 PRINCIPLES OF SPORTS NUTRITION HYDRATION9,10 HYDRATION During exercise, you lose fluid and electrolytes as you sweat: • The key electrolyte is sodium • If you don’t replace both fluid and sodium during exercise, you can become dehydrated The single largest contributor to fatigue during exercise is dehydration caused by fluid and sodium losses: • Inadequate fluid and sodium make your heart work harder and make exercise much more difficult • Dehydration also impairs concentration and the ability to make tactical decisions Complicating matters is that thirst alone is not a good indicator of your hydration needs during exercise • Drink before you are thirsty 4

  6. THE 3 PRINCIPLES OF SPORTS NUTRITION HYDRATION Losing over 2% of your body weight due to fluid loss during exercise means you are dehydrated, and your performance has already been hampered: • A 2% loss is just 3 lbs for a 150-lb athlete • It is common to lose this much fluid, or more, during a workout or competition Consuming too much plain water during exercise leads to overhydration, potentially resulting in hyponatremia, which also impairs performance and can have serious health consequences • Stay within your hydration zone during exercise: • Avoid gaining weight during exercise due to overconsuming fluid • Don’t lose any more than 2% of your body weight due to fluid loss • Fortunately, dehydration and overhydration can be avoided or minimized by sticking to a disciplined hydration plan 5

  7. THE 3 PRINCIPLES OF SPORTS NUTRITION FUELING5, 6 • Carbohydrates are the primary fuel for most types of exercise • 60–90 minutes of endurance training or a few hours in the weight room can seriously deplete carbohydrate muscle fuel stores • If your diet does not provide sufficient carbs, your workouts and performance will suffer • Starting exercise with full carbohydrate stores can delay the onset of fatigue and help you to train and compete more effectively • The more intense your training or competition, the higher your daily carbohydrate intake should be in the suggested range of 2.3–4.5 grams of carbs per lb (5–10 g/kg) body weight daily 6

  8. There are two forms of carbohydrate in your body: Glucose,which circulates in the bloodstream Glycogen, which is bundles of glucose stored in the liver and muscles THE 3 PRINCIPLES OF SPORTS NUTRITION FUELING • When you’re fully loaded with carbs, you have: • About 40 calories of glucose in the bloodstream • About 1,900 calories stored as glycogen in the muscle, plus liver glycogen 7

  9. THE 3 PRINCIPLES OF SPORTS NUTRITION FUELING • When you run out of muscle glycogen stores, you rely on your small reserves of liver glycogen to maintain blood glucose levels • After liver glycogen stores are used up, blood sugar level drops, and you are forced to either slow way down or stop • In some sports, this is called “hitting the wall” or “bonking” “Hitting the Wall” 8

  10. THE 3 PRINCIPLES OF SPORTS NUTRITION FUELING Avoid running out of muscle fuel during workouts and competitions: • Start training sessions and competitions fully fueled • Refuel as needed during exercise • Replenish glycogen stores after exercise Low-carb diets are NOT appropriate for athletes! 9

  11. THE 3 PRINCIPLES OF SPORTS NUTRITION RECOVERY5, 6, 9 • Workouts and competitions deplete your glycogen stores • Muscle tissue gets damaged as you train and compete, and requires repair • Your muscles also are being stimulated to adapt to your training workload • Recovery involves reloading carbohydrate fuel stores, repairing and building new muscle tissue, and rehydrating • Recovery doesn’t start after exercise until you provide your body the nutritional components it needs: • Carbohydrates • Protein • Fluids and sodium 10

  12. THE 3 PRINCIPLES OF SPORTS NUTRITION RECOVERY Promote rapid recovery after exercise As soon as possible after training or competing (within 30–60 minutes), consume: • Carbohydrates for glycogen restoration • Protein for repairing damaged muscle tissue and for building new muscle tissue as an adaptation to training workload • Fluids and sodium for rehydration 11

  13. YOUR SPORTS NUTRITION GAME PLAN Hydration to Recovery • Putting the principles of sports nutrition into practice: • Start exercise fully hydrated and fueled • Stay in your hydration zone and knowwhat to hydrate with during exercise • Refuel as needed during exercise • Promote full recovery after exercise • Practice your regimen during training 12

  14. YOUR SPORTS NUTRITION GAME PLAN Start Exercise Fully Hydrated and Fueled • Start exercise fully hydratedby drinking 15–21 fl oz (430–600 ml) of water or sports drink 2–3 hours before training or competing • Keep hydrating as needed during warm-ups • Top off muscle energy storesby consuming a carb-based meal 2–4 hours before exercise • Choose familiar carb-based foods and beverages • Avoid slow-to-digest fatty and high-fiber foods prior to exercise • Eat a carb-based snack40–60 grams of carbs 30–60 minutes before exercise, along with fluids (see appendix for examples) 13

  15. YOUR SPORTS NUTRITION GAME PLAN Match Your Sweat Rate and Know Whatto Hydrate with During Exercise • Matching your sweat rate generally requires about 14–27 fl oz (400–800 ml) of fluid every hour of exercise. But sweat rates vary • To calculate your sweat rate, and for a personalized plan to meet your unique hydration needs, access thePowerBar® Sweat Rate Calculator at • A sports drink is recommended for exercise of 1 hour or longer and any time it is hot or humid To stay hydrated during exercise, consume fluids at a rate that closely matches your sweat rate: 14

  16. YOUR SPORTS NUTRITION GAME PLAN Refuel as Needed During Exercise 15

  17. PowerBar® C2MAXTMEnergy blend carbs — The leading edge of muscle fueling: C2MAX is a dual-source energy blend featuring a 2:1 blend of glucose to fructose Breakthrough studies reveal that this blend delivers 20–55% more energy to muscles than glucose alone A recent study showed this unique fuel produced an 8% improvement in athletes’ cycling times7 YOUR SPORTS NUTRITION GAME PLAN Refuel As Needed During Exercise 16

  18. YOUR SPORTS NUTRITION GAME PLAN Promote Full Recovery: After Exercise • Carbohydrates • To support glycogen restoration after strenuous exercise: • Aim for carbs in the amount of 0.5 grams per lb (1.1 grams per kg) body weight within 30 minutesof finishing exercise • For a 150-lb (68-kg) athlete, that equates to 75 grams of carbohydrates right after exercise • Repeat this within 2 hours after exercise, or eat a carb-based meal • For heavy training, repeat this hourly for the first 3 hours after exercise, or eat carb-based meals and snacks • Simple carbs right after exercise are more effective at supporting glycogen restoration 17

  19. YOUR SPORTS NUTRITION GAME PLAN Promote Full Recovery: After Exercise Protein Focus on timing your protein intake in relation to workouts and meeting your total daily protein needs: • For endurance training: • Aim for 10–20 grams of protein as soon as possible (within 30 minutes) after finishing exercise to promote muscle tissue repair and adaptation to your training • For resistance training: • 20–40 grams of protein intake just before and/or as soon as possible after resistance training (within 30 minutes) is essential for recovery, including the growth and maintenance of muscle tissue • Total daily need for protein: • 0.55–0.77 grams per lb (1.2–1.7 g/kg) body weight (teens may require more) • About 82–116 grams of protein per day for a 150-lb athlete 18

  20. YOUR SPORTS NUTRITION GAME PLAN Promote Full Recovery: After Exercise Fluids and Sodium Even if you are diligent in your hydration efforts during exercise, you may lose more fluids and sodium than you take in: • Weigh yourself before and after exercise to gauge your net loss of fluids • Replace fluids lost by gradually consuming 16–24 fl oz of a sports drink, recovery beverage, or water for every lb of weight lost (1,000–1,500 ml/kg body weight lost) • Rehydration will be more effective when sodium is included with the fluids and food you consume as you recover 19

  21. YOUR SPORTS NUTRITION GAME PLAN To help meet your carb, protein, sodium, and fluid needs after training or competing, the following list of foods are great options: • Bagel with low-fat cream cheese • Peanut-butter-and-jelly sandwiches • Slice of thick crust veggie pizza • Whole wheat salted pretzels dipped in peanut butter • Fruit and yogurt parfait topped with granola • String cheese and crackers • Low-fat yogurt or pudding • Low-fat chocolate milk • PowerBar® Recovery bar • PowerBar ProteinPlus® protein bar • PowerBar ProteinPlus® Bites™ • PowerBar® Sport Energy™ bar • PowerBarProteinPlus® protein powder 20

  22. When your training and sports nutrition regimen are in sync, you support your performance gains It is only through a system of trial and error during training that you can develop your own personalized sports nutrition plan Practice your sports nutrition regimen during training. Don’t try anything new on race or game day YOUR SPORTS NUTRITION GAME PLAN Practice Your Regimen During Training To apply sports nutrition principles correctly, practice them during training: 21

  23. HEALTHY EATING TIPS FOR ATHLETES Aim for a well-balanced diet: • Consume a variety of whole grains, vegetables, and fruits; lean protein sources; and healthy fats Focus on carbs: • Carbohydrates are the major muscle fuel source, and should be the primary focus of your diet • Fill ¾ of your plate with carbohydrate-based foods such as fruit, cereals, pasta, bread, potatoes and vegetables • Fill the other ¼ of your plate with lean protein foods, such as fish, poultry, lean beef, low-fat dairy products and beans • Drink up early: • Have a large glass of water every morning when you wake up Keep up your energy levels: • Eat 5–6 meals per day 22

  24. ANY QUESTIONS? Credit: 23

  25. Breakfast Cold or hot cereal, fruit, and low-fat or nonfat milk French toast or pancakes with maple syrup English muffin with jam and peanut butter, banana, and fruit juice APPENDIX Examples of carbohydrate-based pre-exercise meals (2–4 hours before exercise) • Lunch or Dinner • Pasta with tomato sauce,French bread, steamed vegetables, low-fat/nonfat milk, pudding, and canned fruit • Grilled chicken sandwich, baked potato with low-fat sour cream or salsa, and low-fat frozen yogurt • Thick-crust cheese pizza, low-fat gelato, and canned peaches • Baked or grilled chicken, turkey, fish, or lean beef; steamed rice; roll; green beans; low-fat frozen yogurt; and fruit juice 24

  26. APPENDIX Food values based on USDA database.15 PowerBar values based on analysis. 25

  27. APPENDIX How do I get about 130 grams of protein? Food values based on USDA database.15 PowerBar values based on analysis. 26

  28. 1) I train early in the morning. I can’t eat a meal a few hours before! What are some alternatives? For early-morning games and events, not too many athletes want to get up extra early in order to eat a hearty meal. Instead, a light meal or snack will do. Many athletes find that a more liquid snack, such as a yogurt, nutrition shake, or energy gel, works well. Liquids empty from the stomach faster, so this works well for those who may have pre-event jitters or a touchy stomach. Others will consume an energy bar 30–60 minutes prior to exercise with great success. It is important to top off your energy stores before exercise; studies have shown that endurance performance can improve by 20% for some individuals when they have fueled properly. APPENDIX Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Here are some questions you may be asked during the presentation, along with suggested answers. For even more information, check out the website for articles on a wide range of topics. 27

  29. 2) What about caffeine? Caffeine has come into play as an important ergogenic aid in sports nutrition. It may help you work out harder, or compete at a higher intensity without actually feeling like you are. But remember, more is not better in the case of caffeine; modest doses in the range of 1–3 mg/kg (about 70–200 mg for a 150-lb person) have been shown to be just as effective as higher amounts. For more on caffeine, see the article on — Caffeine and Athletic Performance — in the nutrition article library. APPENDIX Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) 28

  30. 3) What do I do for everyday eating when I am not exercising? What is a healthy, everyday diet? Aim for a healthy diet: Carbohydrates from a variety of whole grains, vegetables, fruit, and beans Protein from fish, poultry, lean meats, beans, low-fat or nonfat dairy foods, and eggs or egg whites Fats from healthy sources such as vegetable oils, nuts, seeds, and avocados Compared to the recommendations for healthy eating for the general population, an athlete needs to increase carbohydrate sources in their diet to meet the body’s increased demand for energy, as well as increase fluid intake to cover sweat losses. Studies have shown that a diet that consists of 60–65% carbohydrate during the training period resulted in improved muscle glycogen concentrations and/or significant improvements in athletic performance. APPENDIX Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) 29

  31. 4) I avoid carbs because I have heard they can make you fat. Is this true? Carbs can contribute to weight gain and excess body fat, but only if they are consumed in excess of what your body needs. This is also true of fat and protein. Remember that as an athlete, you require more fuel, and the primary fuel for active muscles is carbs. In your daily nutrition plan, aim for more nutrient-dense carbs and limit your intake of low-nutrient carbs such as candy, soda, and desserts. To fuel for your sport, you should aim for simple, readily absorbed carbs soon before, immediately after, as well as during exercise; carbs that have higher fiber content are better to have after exercise, or at meals a few hours before.5 APPENDIX Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) 30

  32. APPENDIX Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Many athletes fail to take in adequate carbohydrates and adjust their intake as their training demand changes. Carbohydrate needs will vary depending on the intensity and time in training. 31

  33. 5) What are examples of slow-to-digest and fatty foods? We have said in the presentation that you should avoid slow-to-digest fatty and high–fiber foods before exercise. This is because these types of foods tend to stay in your stomach longer. If your stomach is full, you could get stomach cramps and nausea. Blood flow to your digestive system is reduced during exercise, so this could make matters even worse. High-fat foods include things like bacon, fatty meats, fried foods, pastries, salad dressings, pies, nuts, and rich desserts. High-fiber foods include things like beans, raw vegetables, bran cereals, corn, popcorn, nuts, seeds, fruits with skins, and dried fruit. APPENDIX Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) 32

  34. 6) This presentation is about improving my sports performance. What do I do if I have other exercise goals besides performance? For example, weight gain, muscle building, or weight loss? For weight gain and muscle building: First of all, as an athlete you are striving for gains in muscle and strength. Extra body fat is rarely the desired goal and would be unlikely to transfer into enhanced performance. Aim to gain no more than 2–3 lbs per week, by increasing regular portions of healthful foods. You should be eating 5–6 full meals per day. By increasing your regular calorie consumption by 500–1,000 calories per day, along with regular resistance training, you should be on your way. See this article on for more information: Muscle Building Nutrition on the Cutting Edge. APPENDIX Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) 33

  35. For weight loss: It is important to realize that a drastic reduction in energy intake can negatively impact your performance. If at all possible, weight loss should be undertaken in the off-season, before your training begins to ramp up. A realistic goal is to lose about 1 lb (0.45 kg) of body weight per week. To achieve this, you’ll need a calorie deficit, a shortage of about 500–750 calories every day. If you want to drop 5 lbs (2.3 kg), plan on taking about 5 weeks to pull it off. To lose 8 lbs (3.6 kg), plan on about 8 weeks. Read this article on — Weight Loss for Athletes — for more information. APPENDIX Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) 34

  36. 7) I am presenting to a high school team. Can I use the same recommendations? The answer is yes! Teen athletes have some specific areas to focus on, such as the importance of adequate calcium in their diets, and their protein needs per body weight are slightly higher than for adult athletes. In terms of total protein intake, teenage athletes require about 0.68–0.91 grams of protein per lb of body weight daily (1.5–2.0 grams per kilogram). For a 150-lb (68-kg) high school athlete, this equates to 102–137 grams of protein daily. Most athletes easily consume this amount of protein or more in a day. Consuming more protein than you need offers no performance benefit and does not further increase your muscle mass. Read this article on in the nutrition article library — Sports Nutrition for High School Athletes — for more information. APPENDIX Frequently Asked Questions (FAQS) 35

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