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Chapter 11 Slavery and the Old South. The American People , 6 th ed. Building a Diverse Cotton Kingdom. The Expansion of Slavery in a Global Economy.

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chapter 11 slavery and the old south

Chapter 11Slavery and the Old South

The American People, 6th ed.

the expansion of slavery in a global economy
The Expansion of Slavery in a Global Economy
  • In 1860 the American South, if independent, would have been one of the wealthiest countries in the world based on the revenue of the cotton trade.
  • Cotton cultivation and its expansion depended on technological development, land, labor, demand, and a global system of trade.
slavery in latin america
Slavery in Latin America
  • Europeans depended on African slavery in their New World colonies.
  • African slaves were imported to replace the indigenous populations that were eradicated by disease.
  • Sugar production was the cash crop for the Latin American holdings of the European powers.
white and black migrations in the south
White and Black Migrations in the South
  • Between 1830 and 1860, southerners began to migrate in a southwest direction to fill up the fertile land and increase cotton production for the mills of England.
  • The center of cotton production gradually shifted from South Carolina to Mississippi.
  • An estimated 1 million slaves were transported westward by this white migration.
paternalism and honor in the planter class
Paternalism and Honor in the Planter Class
  • Most Southern males adhered to a long-standing tradition of medieval chivalry and aversion to industrialization.
  • The Southern planters developed a paternalistic attitude towards his slaves; a kindly father-and-child relationship.
  • An intensely masculine code of honor placed the virtue of women on a pedestal.
  • The smallest insult could lead to pistol duels.
yeoman farmers
Yeoman Farmers
  • Most slaveholders (70 percent) belonged to the mid-level yeoman farmer class.
  • A Yeoman farmer might have owned as many as ten slaves, but usually work alongside them.
  • 75 percent of all southerners held no slaves at all.
justifying slavery
Justifying Slavery
  • Biblical Justification: ancient curse upon Ham, a child of Noah and other references
  • Historical Justification: all great civilizations participated in slavery
  • Legal Justification: the U.S. Constitution refused to address slavery directly
  • Scientific Justification: multiple theories regarding inferiority of the black race
  • Sociological Justification: the black race as societal “children” that needed paternalistic guidance
daily toil
Daily Toil
  • Slaves were expected to work an average of 14 hours per day during warm weather and 10 hours in the winter.
  • Work gangs of 20 to 25 slaves labored under the whip of a “slave driver.”
  • The task system allowed slaves to finish a designated task each day at their own pace.
  • A normal slave was expected to pick 130 to 150 pounds of cotton a day.
slave law and the family
Slave Law and the Family
  • The legal status of slaves in the South was never fully resolved, leading to a wide range of laws governing the treatment of African Americans.
  • Marriages between slaves were often arranged for optimal genetic reproduction.
  • Slave families were often separated.
black christianity
Black Christianity
  • Christian worship was an integral part of life in the slave quarters.
  • Black Christianity often included aspects of Islamic and African religions.
  • Black religious gatherings were usually forbidden unless a white overseer was present.
  • For the white planters, religion became a type of social control.
the enduring family
The Enduring Family
  • Family relationships were central to the lives of most slaves.
  • Slaves could draw love, protection, support, knowledge, and cultural identity from these extended families.
  • Slaves often performed extra work to provide extra food and clothing for their families.
forms of black protest
Forms of Black Protest
  • Daily acts of resistance might include breaking of tools, burning houses or crops, stealing food, self mutilation or simple work slowdowns.
  • Females might fake sickness or menstrual cramps.
  • The ultimate forms were murder or running away.