The red badge of courage by stephen crane Презентациювыполнила: ФетисоваАнастасия, 2 англ. преп.
a war novel by Stephen Crane one of the most influential works in American literature It features a young recruit who overcomes initial fears to become a hero on the battlefield. the novel is considered an example of American Naturalism. A shorter version of Crane's manuscript was first serialized in The Philadelphia Press in December 1894. This version of the story was then reprinted in newspapers across America, establishing Crane's notoriety. A longer final revision of the manuscript was printed in book form by D. Appleton & Company in October 1895.
Realism & Naturalism Realism It is a literary style that emerged in the second part of the 19th century in which authors attempted to recreate scenes, action, and people as realistically as possible, including the psychological aspects of characters. Influenced by journalism, realist novels record events factually without judgment and tend to focus on the poor or working classes. Having grown out of psychology as a growing medical field, realism delves into the psychology of characters and their inner conflicts. Stephen Crane, with his journalism background and interest in the poor, uses a realist narrative style in many of his works, including The Red Badge of Courage. Naturalism It is a literary style that flows from the realist style and emerged at the end of the 19th century. In naturalist literature the environment plays an important role, often becoming a character in its own right. Also, the social environment, such as the state of poverty, is explored for how it affects characters. Stephen Crane, writing at the end of the 19th century, employs naturalistic techniques in The Red Badge of Courage. The novel does not glorify war; rather it is a psychological study of a poor farm boy who has little control of his situation as a foot soldier in the army.
The Red Badge of Courage It is a novel in which Henry Fleming, “the Youth,” struggles with the question of whether he will fight or run when he sees his first real battle. After it begins, he stands firm for the first charge, then runs when the Confederate forces charge again. He is ashamed, wishing he had a bloody bandage, a “red badge of courage.”
Thetitle A red badge of courage is a wound obtained while fighting and indicates that the soldier was brave and courageous in battle. In a case of situational irony where expectation and reality collide, Henry Fleming, while fleeing battle, receives his wound by another fleeing soldier who strikes him on the head with a rifle. Henry's comrades believe his story that he was wounded by an enemy's bullet and respect him because he doesn’t complain about his injury.
Themostimportantcharacters Henry Fleming enlists in the army against his mother's wishes; he has an idealized image of war and of a war hero.He fights well in his first battle and is pleased with himself. However, his regiment is attackedagain, and he flees in fear. By the end Henry is confidentandbrave. Wilson - as the loud soldier Wilson seemingly argues just to argue and gets irritated at the slightest comment. After a day of fighting he no longer minds criticism and looks after Henry "with tenderness and care.ThenWilson proves to be an effective soldier who works well with Henry, the lieutenant, and the regiment. Jim Conklin - The tall soldier brings the news that the regiment is going to march the next day after their long winter encampment.The information proves to be false.Laterwhen Henry encounters the wounded soldiers, he sees one with "the gray seal of death already upon his face," and is shocked to realize it is Conklin.
The plot 1 – Union soldiers camp in spring after wintering in place. 2 – Men question general’s leadership and plans. 3 – Henry debates whether he will flee in battle. 4 – Henry flees second battle in fear. 5 – Henry receives head wound by a Union soldier. 6 – Henry and Wilson fight heroically and repel enemy. 7 – Henry matures and becomes a man.
Conclusion This book has become one of the most iconic texts on the American Civil War. Whereas many war novels of the time were written in a grandiose style, clearly crafted to convey a political message or testify to American patriotism, Crane incorporated brutal realism into The Red Badge of Courage. Crane's aim was to show the fears and psychological torment felt by the common foot soldier in battle. He did this by capturing the mentality of a young man, Henry Fleming, suddenly torn from the monotony of daily life and thrust into scenes of chaos and violence. The realism with which Crane portrays war earned his novel fantastic reviews and critical acclaim upon publication and cemented its legacy as one of the finest works of American Civil War fiction.