Motivating and Leading Chapter 11
Defining Motivation A psychological process through which unsatisfied wants or needs lead to drives that are aimed at goals or incentives. 1) direction of behavior; 2) the intensity or how hard people work; 3) the persistence displayed in meeting goals.
The Basic Process of Motivation 1. Unsatisfied need (creates a desire to fulfill needs--food, security, friends, accomplishments) 2. Goal directed behavior (actions to fulfill needs) 3. Need satisfaction(rewards to satisfy needs)
The Universalist Assumption • The first assumption is that the motivation process is universal, that all people are motivated to pursue goals they value—what the work-motivation theorists call goals with “high valence” or “preference” • The process is universal • Culture influences the specific content and goals pursued • Motivation differs across cultures
The Assumption of Content and Process • Content Theories of Motivation Theories that explain work motivation in terms of what arouses, energizes, or initiates employee behavior. • Process Theories of Motivation Theories that explain work motivation by how employee behavior is initiated, redirected, and halted.
INFLUENCE OF CULTURE ON BEHAVIOR Culture Values Behaviors Attitudes
Cross-Cultural Research on Motivation • Motivation is very much a function of the context of a person’s work and personal life. That context is greatly influenced by cultural variables, which affect the attitudes and behaviors of individuals (and groups) on the job.
Environmental Variables Affect Management NationalSociolocultural Economic Physical Religion Legal Technological Education Political know-how Language CulturalAttitudes Values Work Individualism Norms Time Change Beliefs Materialism Employee Job Behavior Motivation Commitment Productivity Ethics
Cross-Cultural Research on Motivation Some generalized assumptions about motivation based on Hofstede’s research: • High uncertainty avoidance suggests the need for job security, whereas people with low uncertainty avoidance would probably be motivated by more risky opportunities for variety and fast-track advancement. • High power distance suggests motivators in the relationship between subordinates and their boss, whereas low power distance implies that people would be more motivated by teamwork and relations with their peers.
Cross-Cultural Research on Motivation • High individualism suggests people would be motivated by opportunities for individual advancement and autonomy; collectivism (low individualism) suggests that motivation will more likely work through appeals to group goals and support. • High masculinity suggests that most people would be more comfortable with the traditional division of work and roles; in a more feminine culture, the boundaries could be looser, motivating people through more flexible roles and work networks.
Maslow’s Needs-Hierarchy Theory Potential Means of Fulfillment at work Needs Hierarchy Challenging projects, opportunities for innovation and creativity, training Important projects, recognition, prestigious office location Good coworkers, peers, superiors, customers Job security; benefits, like life insurance; safety regulations Basic pay, work space, heat, water, company cafeteria Self Actualization Esteem Social Safety Physiological
International Findings on Maslow’s Theory • With some minor modification researchers examined the need satisfaction and need importance of the four highest-level needs in the Maslow hierarch • Esteem needs were divided into two groups: • Esteem – including needs for self-esteem and prestige • Autonomy – including desires for authority and opportunities for independent thought and action
International Findings on Maslow’s Theory • The Haire study indicated all these needs were important to the respondents across cultures • International managers (not rank-and-file employees) indicated the upper-level needs were of particular importance to them • Findings for select country clusters (Latin Europe, United States/United Kingdom, and Nordic Europe) indicated autonomy and self-actualization were the most important and least satisfied needs for the respondents • Another study of managers in eight East Asian countries found that autonomy and self-actualization in most cases also ranked high
International Findings on Maslow’s Theory • Nevis (1983) has suggested modifying Maslow’s “Western-oriented” hierarchy by reranking the needs • Asian cultures emphasize the needs of society • Chinese hierarchy of needs might have four levels ranked from lowest to highest: • Belonging (social) • Physiological • Safety • Self-actualization (in the service of society)
International Findings on Maslow’s Theory • Hofstede’s research indicates: • Self-actualization and esteem needs rank highest for professionals and managers • Security, earnings, benefits, and physical working conditions are most important to low-level, unskilled workers • Job categories and levels may have a dramatic effect on motivation and may well offset cultural considerations • MNCs should focus most heavily on giving physical rewards to lower-level personnel and on creating a climate where there is challenge, autonomy, the ability to use one’s skills, and cooperation for middle- and upper-level personnel.
Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory Hygiene Factors Motivators Pay Working Conditions Supervisors Company Policies Benefits Achievement Responsibility Work itself Recognition Growth & Achievement Resolve Dissatisfaction Promote Satisfaction Neutral (neither dissatisfied nor satisfied)
International Findings on Herzberg’s Theory Two categories of International findings relate to the two-factor theory: • One type of study consists of replications of Herzberg’s research in a particular country Do managers in country X give answers similar to those in Herzberg’s original studies? • The others are cross-cultural studies focusing on job satisfaction What factors cause job satisfaction and how do these responses differ from country to country?
International Findings on Herzberg’s Theory A number of research efforts have been undertaken to replicate the two-factor theory – they tend to support Herzberg’s findings • George Hines surveyed of 218 middle managers and 196 salaried employees in New Zealand using ratings of 12 job factors and overall job satisfaction – he concluded “the Herzberg model appears to have validity across occupational levels” • A similar study was conducted among 178 Greek managers – this study found that overall Herzberg’s two-factor theory of job satisfaction generally held true
International Findings on Herzberg’s Theory Motivators tend to be more important to job satisfaction than hygiene factors • MBA candidates from four countries ranked hygiene factors at the bottom and motivators at the top while Singapore students (of a different cultural cluster than the other three groups) gave similar responses • Job-satisfaction-related factors may not always be culturally bounded
International Findings on Herzberg’s Theory • Lower- and middle-management personnel attending management development courses in Canada, the United Kingdom, France, and Japan ranked the importance of 15 job-related outcomes and how satisfied they were with each • Job content may be more important than job context • Job-Context Factors In work motivation, those factors controlled by the organization, such as conditions, hours, earnings, security, benefits, and promotions. • Job-Content Factors In work motivation, those factors internally controlled, such as responsibility, achievement, and the work itself.
The Meaning of Work (MOW) Research Functions satisfied by work • Work provides a needed income • Is interesting and satisfying • Provides contacts with others • Facilitates a way to serve society • Keeps one occupied • Gives status and prestige The MOW team looked at the score for each function for various countries
Differences in Work Goals TW CN US (N=104) (N=80) (N=97) • Using my abilities 6 1 9 • Earnings 2.5 2 10 • A feeling of personal worth 8 3.5 1 • A sense of achievement 1 3.5 6.5 • Relationship with coworkers 2.5 5 12 • Interesting work 4 6.5 5 • Autonomy on job 12 6.5 18 • Opportunity for promotion 7 12 3 • Recognition for good work 9 14 6.5 • Job security 5 15 2 • Time for family life 15 19 4 • Working location 18 20 19.5
Equity Theory • When people perceive they are being treated equitably it will have a positive effect on their job satisfaction • If they believe they are not being treated fairly (especially in relation to relevant others) they will be dissatisfied which will have a negative effect on their job performance and they will strive to restore equity. • There is considerable research to support the fundamental equity principle in Western work groups. • When the theory is examined on an international basis, the results are mixed.
Equity Theory • Equity perceptions among managers and nonmanagers in an Israeli kibbutz production unit • Everyone was treated the same but managers reported lower satisfaction levels than the workers • Managers perceived their contributions to be greater than other groups in the kibbutz and felt under compensated for their value and effort
Equity Theory • Employees in Asia and the Middle East often readily accept inequitable treatment in order to preserve group harmony • Men and women in Japan and Korea (and Latin America) typically receive different pay for doing the same work – due to years of cultural conditioning women may not feel they are treated inequitably • These results indicate equity theory is not universally applicable in explaining motivation and job satisfaction
Goal-Setting Theory • A process theory that focuses on how individuals go about setting goals and responding to them and the overall impact of this process on motivation • Specific areas that are given attention in goal-setting theory include: • The level of participation in setting goals • Goal difficulty • Goal specificity • The importance of objective • Timely feedback to progress toward goals
Goal-Setting Theory • Unlike many theories of motivation, goal setting has been continually refined and developed • There is considerable research evidence showing that employees perform extremely well when they are assigned specific and challenging goals that they have had a hand in setting • Most of these studies have been conducted in the United States – few have been carried out in other cultures
Goal-Setting Theory • Norwegian employees shunned participation and preferred to have their union representatives work with management in determining work goals • Researchers concluded that individual participation in goal setting was seen as inconsistent with the prevailing Norwegian philosophy of participation through union representatives • In the United States employee participation in setting goals is motivational – it had no value for the Norwegian employees in this study
Expectancy Theory • A process theory that postulates that motivation is influenced by a person’s belief that • Effort will lead to performance • Performance will lead to specific outcomes, and • The outcomes will be of value to the individual.
Expectancy Theory • Expectancy theory predicts that high performance followed by high rewards will lead to high satisfaction Does this theory have universal application? • Eden found some support for it while studying workers in an Israeli kibbutz • Matsui and colleagues found it could be successfully applied in Japan • Expectancy theory could be culture-bound – international managers must be aware of this limitation in motivating human resources since expectancy theory is based on employees having considerable control over their environment (a condition that does not exist in many cultures)
Work Centrality • Work centrality is defined as “the degree of general importance that working has in the life of an individual at any given point in time.” • The higher the mean work centrality score, the more motivated and committed the workers would be.
The Relative Meaning of Work in Eight Countries(Exhibit 11-1) Mean work centrality score 8.0 7.78 N = 3144 Japan (7) 7.75 7.5 7.30 (former) Yugoslavia (5) N = 521 Work is more important and more central in life 7.25 7.10 Israel (4) N = 893 N = 996 N = 446 7.0 6.94 USA (3) 6.81 Belgium (1) 6.75 6.69 Netherlands (1) Germany (1) N = 976 N = 1276 6.67 6.5 6.36 Britain (0) N = 409 6.25 Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of countries significantly lower (p<0.05) in work centrality than the country designated 6.0
The Role of Culture in Job Motivation(Exhibit 11-6) Culture Values/Attitudes/Norms Individual/ Group Behavior MOW (Meaning Of Work) Needs Motivation Appropriate Motivators (Intrinsic-extrinsic)
Roles Played by Managers on International Assignments • A representative of the parent firm • The manager of the local firm • A resident of the local community • A citizen of either the host country or of another country • A member of a profession • A member of a family
Variables in the Leader’s Role • The content of leadership comprises the attributes of the leader and the decisions to be made • The context of leadership comprises all those variables related to the particular situation.
Attributes of the Person Job position knowledge, experience, expectations Longevity in company, country, functional area Intelligence and cultural learning or change ability Personality as demonstrated in values, beliefs, attitudes toward foreign situations Multiple memberships in work and professional groups Decision and personal work style Characteristics of Decision Situation Degree of complexity, uncertainty, and risk In-country information needs and availability Articulation of assumptions and expectations Scope and potential impact on performance Nature of business partners Authority and autonomy required Required level of participation and acceptance by employees, partners, and government Linkage to other decisions Past management legacy Openness to public scrutiny and responsibility Factors Affecting Leadership AbroadCONTENT
Attributes of the Job or Position Longevity and past success of former role occupants in the position Technical requirements of the job Relative authority or power Physical location (e.g., home office, field office) Need for coordination, cooperation, and integration with other units Resource availability Foreign peer group relations Characteristics of the Firm and Business Environment Firm structure: size, location, technology, tasks, reporting, and communication patterns Firm process: decision making, staffing, control system, reward system, information system, means of coordination, integration, and conflict resolution Firm outputs: products, services, public image, corporate culture, local history, and community relations Business environment: social-cultural, political-economic, and technological aspects of a country or market Factors Affecting Leadership AbroadCONTEXT
Culturally-Contingent Beliefs Regarding Effective Leadership Styles Country N Charisma Team Self- Part. Humane Autonomous Protective Austria 169 6.03 5.74 3.07 6.00 4.93 4.47 Brazil 264 6.01 6.17 3.50 6.06 4.84 2.27 China 160 5.57 5.57 3.80 5.05 5.18 4.07 Denmark 327 6.01 5.70 2.82 5.80 4.23 3.79 England 168 6.01 5.71 3.04 5.57 4.90 3.92 India 231 5.85 5.72 3.78 4.99 5.26 3.85 Israel 543 6.23 5.91 3.64 4.96 4.68 4.26 Japan 197 5.49 5.56 3.61 5.08 4.68 3.67 Mexico 327 5.66 5.75 3.86 4.64 4.71 3.86 Russia 301 5.66 5.63 3.69 4.67 4.08 4.63 USA 399 6.12 5.80 3.16 5.93 5.21 3.75 Scale 1 to 7 in order of how important those behaviors are considered for effective leadership (7 = highest)
Culturally-Contingent Beliefs Regarding Effective Leadership Styles Sample comments made by managers from various countries: • Americans appreciate two kinds of leaders. They seek empowerment from leaders who grant autonomy and delegate authority to subordinates. They also respect the bold, forceful, confident, and risk-taking leader, as personified by John Wayne. • The Dutch place emphasis on egalitarianism and are skeptical about the value of leadership. Terms like leader and manager carry a stigma. If a father is employed as a manager, Dutch children will not admit it to their schoolmates. • Arabs worship their leaders – as long as they are in power! • Iranians seek power and strength in their leaders. • Malaysians expect their leaders to behave in a manner that is humble, modest, and dignified. • The French expect their leaders to be “cultivated” – highly educated in the arts and in mathematics. R. House, et al.
The Culture Contingency in the Leadership Process: An Integrative Model Motivation Effects Context Content Leader-Follower Situation Outcomes External Origin Political Economic Technological Cultural Leader Cultural sensitivity Values, motives Ability, experiences Source of power Personality, style Leader Behavior Variables Autocratic or participative Task or people oriented Reward system Transformational Effort Productivity Performance Quality Ability to Achievement of Achieve goals individual and group goals Satisfaction Positive climate Turnover Satisfaction Absenteeism Quality Subordinates Values, norms Ability, experiences Needs, motives Locus of control Level of Divergence/ Convergence of Culture/ Management Interaction Influence Employee Behavior Variables Expectancy achievement Value of rewards Responsiveness to Leader behaviors Group response Internal Origin Organization factors Task factors Resource availability Systems Processes Work Groups Values, norms Work goals Authority system Group processes Feedback Rewards