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Introduction To Human Anatomy and Physiology. Coach Denson Honors Human A & P. Introduction. The study of the human body and how it works is relevant to every person alive. The history of Human A & P follows the history of man and his development.

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introduction to human anatomy and physiology

Introduction To Human Anatomy and Physiology

Coach Denson

Honors Human A & P

introduction
Introduction
  • The study of the human body and how it works is relevant to every person alive.
  • The history of Human A & P follows the history of man and his development.
  • It is virtually impossible to separate the study of anatomy from the study of physiology.
anatomy and physiology
Anatomy and Physiology
  • Anatomy refers to the structure of the human body
    • Bones, tissues, organs, etc.
  • Physiology refers to the FUNCTION of the human body.
    • Processes (such as digestion, reproduction, & respiration)
what are the characteristics of life
What are the Characteristics of Life??
  • Group Activity
  • What does it mean to be alive?
  • How would you describe a living organism?
  • What are the 10 characteristics of Human Life?
characteristics of life
Characteristics of Life
  • Movement
  • Responsiveness
  • Growth
  • Reproduction
  • Respiration
  • Digestion
  • Absorption
  • Circulation
  • Assimilation
  • Excretion
maintenance of life
Maintenance of Life
  • Physical life can NOT continue to exist without these requirements:
  • Water
  • Nutrients
  • Oxygen
  • Heat
  • Pressure
maintenance of life homeostasis
Maintenance of Life: Homeostasis
  • Maintains balance of internal body conditions, relative stability.
  • Regulates body temperature, blood pressure, blood glucose level, etc.
  • Employs negative feedback
  • Might vary a little.
homeostatic mechanisms
Homeostatic Mechanisms
  • Receptors-provide information about specific conditions (stimuli) in the internal environment.
  • Control Center- Tells what a particular value should be. Also known as the “set point”.
    • Example- Body temperature-98.6 F
  • Effectors-MUSCLES OR GLANDS, elicit responses that alter conditions in the internal environment.
organization of the body body cavities
Organization of the Body: Body Cavities
  • Axial portion contains dorsal and ventral cavities.
  • Dorsal includes cranial and vertebral (back side)
  • Ventral includes thoracic and abdominopelvic (belly side)
  • Organs in a body cavity are called VISCERA (internal organs)
  • Other cavities include oral, nasal, orbital, middle ear.
  • Dorsal cavity is the most protected….why?
organization of the body membranes
Organization of the Body: Membranes

Thoracic and abdominopelvic membranes

  • Parietal (along body cavity wall) vs. Visceral (surrounding organs)
  • Serous (produces watery fluid, lines tubes that are not exposed to the outside) vs. Mucous (produces thick fluid, lines tubes that are exposed to the outside)
  • Thoracic Membranes (cont’d)
organization of the body membranes1
Organization of the Body: Membranes

C. Thoracic membranes cont’d…

  • Pleural membranes- lines lungs
  • Pericardial membranes- lines the heart
  • Pleural and pericardial cavities-
    • Only potential space for lungs
    • Fluid in pericardial (protects the heart from trauma)

D. Abdominopelvic membranes

    • Peritoneal membrane-
      • membranes of the abdominopelvic area
    • Peritoneal cavity-
      • potential space in between membranes
      • Has serous fluid
organ systems
Organ Systems
  • Integumentary System
    • Anatomy- Skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, sebaceous glands
    • Physiology- Protects underlying tissue, regulates body temperature, water loss, houses sensory receptors
  • Skeletal System
    • Anatomy- bones, cartilages, ligaments, tendons
    • Physiology- provides framework, protective shield, muscle attachment, produces blood, stores inorganic salts
organ systems1
Organ Systems
  • Muscular System
    • Anatomy-Muscles
    • Physiology-Movement, Maintain posture, Produce heat
  • Nervous System- receives information from the environment
    • Anatomy-Brain, spinal cord, nerves, sense organs
    • Physiology-Receives impulses from sensory parts, interprets impulses, and stimulates responses
organ systems2
Organ Systems
  • Endocrine System Only sends information
    • Anatomy- hormones, glands, (pituitary, Thyroid, Adrenal, Ovaries, Etc.)
    • Physiology- Regulates metabolic activity of specific target cells
  • Digestive System
    • Anatomy- Mouth, Esophagus, Stomach, Intestines, Liver, etc.
    • Physiology-Breaks down food, Absorbs nutrients, Eliminates waste
organ systems3
Organ Systems
  • Respiratory System
    • Anatomy-Nasal cavity, Pharynx, Trachea, Bronchi, Lungs
    • Physiology-Intake and output of air, Gas exchange
  • Cardiovascular System
    • Anatomy-Heart, blood vessels, blood
    • Physiology-Transport materials throughout the body
organ systems4
Organ Systems
  • Lymphatic System IMMUNITY
    • Anatomy-Spleen, Thymus, Lymph vessels, Lymph nodes, Lymph
    • Physiology- Transports fluid back to blood stream, Carries fatty substances from intestines, Immunity/body defenses
  • Urinary System
    • Anatomy-Kidneys, Ureters, Urinary bladder, Urethra
    • Physiology-Filters blood, helps maintain fluid balance and electrolyte balance
organ systems5
Organ Systems
  • Reproductive System
    • Anatomy-
      • Male-Testes, Vas deferens, Penis
      • Female-Ovaries, Uterus, Vagina
    • Physiology-
      • Male/Female-Produce, maintain, transport sex cells
      • Female-Protect and nurture unborn and newborn
anatomical terminology
Anatomical Terminology
  • Relative Position-Describes one part of the body in relation to another part (usually in pairs)
    • Superior/Inferior-above/below
    • Anterior/posterior-front/back
    • Medial/lateral-closer to midline/to the side
    • Ipsilateral/Contralateral-same side/opposite side
    • Proximal/Distal-closer to the point of attachment/away from the point of attachment
    • Superficial/Deep-closer to the surface/below the surface
anatomical terminology1
Anatomical Terminology
  • Body section-three main ones
    • Sagittal (median)-cut down the middle
    • Transverse (horizontal)- cut at the waist
    • Coronal (frontal)- cutting the body into front and back
anatomical terminology2
Anatomical Terminology
  • Body regions
    • Abdominal regions
      • Four quadrants
        • Left Upper Quadrant
        • Right Upper Quadrant
        • Right Lower Quadrant
        • Left Lower Quadrant
      • Nine Regions
        • Epigastric
        • Hypogastric
        • Umbillical
        • Left and Right Hypochondriac
        • Left and Right Lumbar
        • Left and Right Illiac