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Food Hazards - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Food Hazards . Hazard 1 (Codex) : ‘ A biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of, food with the potential to cause an adverse health ef fect.’ Significant hazards ( International Life Sciences Institute- ILSI ) :

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Presentation Transcript
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Hazard1 (Codex):

‘A biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of, food with the potential to cause an adverse health effect.’

  • Significant hazards (International Life Sciences Institute- ILSI) :

‘ Hazards that are of such a nature that their elimination or reduction to an acceptable level is essential to the production of safe Foods. ’

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Classification of hazards:

  • Hazards can be classified into three groups:
  • Microbial
  • Chemical
  • physical
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1) Microbial Hazards:

  • Microbial hazards are contamination of foods, at unacceptable levels, with microbial agents of foodborne diseases such as viruses, bacteria, fungi or parasites.
  • Microbiological hazards are the most important for several reasons:
  • They are capable of causing foodborne disease outbreaks that affect large numbers of people.
  • Microbial pathogens can cause infections, intoxications or toxico-infection .
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2) Chemical Hazards:

  • Chemical hazards may cause foodborne diseases, but the frequency is small compared to those caused by microbiological hazards.
  • Chemical poisoning: is food poisoning caused by chemicals that are in the food by accident.
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Chemical hazards include:

  • Agricultural compounds such as pesticides, antibiotics, and growth hormones.
  • Industrial chemicals such as cleaners and sanitizers.
  • Equipment-related compounds such as oils, gasoline, and lubricants.
  • Naturally occurring toxicants such as mycotoxins
  • Environmental contaminants such as lead and mercury.
  • Chemical preservatives
  • Allergens
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There are three main sources of chemical contaminants in food plants:

  • Chemicals entering the plant with the raw materials or ingredients
  • Chemicals used in the plant to support manufacturing processes
  • Chemicals intended for cleaning and sanitation purposes.
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3) Physical hazards:

  • Physical hazards are physical agents that are present in a food and can harm the consumer.
  • Examples include:
  • Fragments of stones
  • Insect fragments
  • Wood fragments
  • Pieces of glass
  • Hard fragments of plastics
  • Carton
  • Physical hazards characteristically affect only one or a few persons, since they are generally present in only a few packages.
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Differentiation should be made between foreign bodies capable of physically injuring a consumer and those that present only an esthetic problem.

  • In general, physical hazards do not cause a disease but an injury – such as a broken tooth or a cut in themouth.
  • Some claims have been made that physical hazards cause a psychological impact that disturbs the relationship between individuals and their food (so-called Psychosomatic food illness).
  • Psychosomatic food illness: is illness caused by the mind after seeing someone else sick or after seeing a foreign object, such as an insect or rodent, in a food product.
  • By definition, HACCP deals with food safety. Therefore, only physical contaminants that can cause injuries should be addressed.
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Presence of flies indicates the existence in the plant environment of putrefying and decaying matter in which they breed.

  • The presence of rodent droppings is clear evidence of infestation with rodents.
  • Poor employee habits and behavior can also introduce foreign bodies into the food.