Early Christian and Byzantine Art. Greeks, and especially Romans produced art that was very realistic. Remember the beauty of the Greek and Roman sculpture. Whereas, early Christian art was more concerned with Symbolic Representation. Early Christian Art.
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Three key points of Early Christian Art:
THE GOOD SHEPHERD ORANTS and THE STORY OF JONAH
Fresco-A method of painting on plaster, either dry or wet (usually) In the latter method, pigments are applied to thin layers of wet plaster so that they will be absorbed and the painting becomes part of the wall.
The figure of the Good Shepherd resembles earlier shepherd figures in pagan Classical art that represent benevolence and philantropy. Additional meaning would have been ascribed to the figure by early Christian viewers in the context of Christ's phrase "I am the shepherd: the good shepherd giveth his life for the sheep,"
The figure was not originally intended as direct portraiture of Christ which would have been contrary to Old Testament injunctions against idolatry
Exodos scene and Retrieving Moses from the Nile, Dura Europos synagogue, c. 250 CE, Syria.
http://www.le.ac.uk/ar/stj/dura.htm Europos synagogue, c. 250 CE, Syria.
Dura-Europos ("Fort Europos") was a Hellenistic and Roman walled city built on an escarpment ninety meters above the banks of the Euphrates river. It is located near the village of Salhiyé, in today's Syria
13.Baptistry in Christian House, Dura Europos, miracles of Jesus, Dura Europos, 3rd cent. CE, Syria.
Sarcophagus Europos synagogue, c. 250 CE, Syria.- A coffin, usually of stone, although sometimes made of wood, metal, or clay. In ancient times they were often decorated with carvings of the deceased or with some religious or mythological subject.
In A.D. 306, Constantine replaced his father as the new ruler of the Western Roman Empire.
Constantine, however, was not accepted as ruler by everyone. He had to fight many other would-be leaders for his position. In A.D. 312 Constantine defeated his last rival at the Battle of Milvian Bridge. The victory made Constantine ruler of the entire Western Empire. According to legend, it was during the battle that Constantine became a Christian.
Around A.D. 315 the Arch of Constantine was built in Rome to celebrate Constantine's victory.
Roman Empire -300 A.D.
Byzantine Empire- 500 A.D.
San Piero a GradoPisa. Italy
Santa Costanza, Rome, Italy ca 350
A basilica is an early type of Christian cathedral or church. Basilicas have a very open floor plan and high ceilings.
Early St. Peter’s with beautiful
Below: reconstruction drawing of St. Peter’s, Rome c. 333-390 CE
plan of St. Peter’s, Rome right: elevation of interior of St. Peter’s Rome.
-alter placed on the raised portion, covered by a canopy of carved and painted wood called a baldachin
-a triumphal arch separated nave from the apse, symbolized the victory of Christ over eternal death
-interior (symbolized richness of spirit) highly decorated with mosaics of coloured glass and gold, and marble inlaid floors.
-eighty granite columns in four rows direct the view to the triumphal arch (also covered in mosaics)
-exteriors –plain brick
Some churches followed a rotunda plan with beautiful
plan and interior of church of San Vitale, brick, c. 540-547 CE, Ravenna.
Archangel Michael -sixth century AD ,British Museum, London
Constantinople (Istanbul), 532-537 AD
Hagia Sophia is one of the great architectural triumphs of the ages. Here, the architects have transported the enormous outward thrust of the huge dome through features called pendentives, to four great stone piers, which are not directly beneath the dome. The dome is used for the first time as a roof over a square, rather than a drum, which was used in the Pantheon. Because the supporting structure is so inconspicuous, the dome gives the illusion of being magically suspended above the nave.
The minarets are Turkish additions after 1453
pendentive - A concave, triangular piece of masonry (a triangle section of a hemisphere), four of which provide the transition from a square area to the circular base
of a covering dome. Although
they appear to be hanging
(pendant) from the dome,
they in fact support it.
The second church on this site was burned in a rebellion in 976, rebuilt in 978 and again to form the basis of the present basilica in 1063. Though straddling into the Romanesuqe era it is still considered a Byzantine design.
surviving Byzantine mosaics
Lots of gold glass tesserae. 1100, Istanbul (Turkey)
Mosaic 1100, Istanbul (Turkey)-A picture or design made of tiny pieces (called tesserae) of coloured stone, glass, tile or paper adhered to a surface. It is typically decorative work for walls, vaults, ceilings or floors, the tesserae set in plaster or concrete.
Mosiacs of Hagia Sophia 1100, Istanbul (Turkey)
religion does not permit likenesses
happened in the Christian religion
as well for over for over 100 years
(725 to 842 CE) and no art was produced in this
period. After this period we have the second Golden
Age of Byzantine. The plans of churches were based on the Greek cross, such a St. Marks’ discussed before .
A certain passage in the Koran links the Prophet Muhammad with Jerusalem and the Temple Mount. That passage, the seventeenth Sura, entitled 'The Night Journey', recounts the story of a dream Mohammed has where he takes a midnight ride (al-Isra) on his flying horse al-Buraq, which had the face of a woman, the body of a horse and the tail of Peacock. The narrative of the Koran in Sura 17 describes it as follows:
"Glory be to Him, who carried His servant by night from the Holy Mosque to the further mosque, the precincts of which we have blessed."
… and from the sacred rock atop of the temple mount he made a spiritual trip to heaven and met the prophets before him) (it is stated in refeneces that this vision is around 617 and 624 A.D ).
They had a strong tradition of painting
Christ Icon, St. Catherine’s Monastery, c. 6th cent. CE, Sinai, Egypt.
National Gallery of Canada chapter, is inscribed across the top in the tile work commissioned in the 16th century by Suleiman the Magnificent. The sura al- Isra (The Night Journey), is inscribed above Ya-Seen. (Wipedica)Jacopo di Cione Triptych of the Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints (1370 - 1380 )
Ugolino di Nerio St. Anne and the Infant Virgin (1330 - 1335 )
Lindisfarne Gospel Book (698-721) Christianized Great Britain)
Christian faith was bound by the authority of sacred writings, and it placed increasing importance on the production of books and their illumination. Some fragments of the biblical text, written in silver and gold on purple vellum and sumptuously illuminated, are still preserved). Foremost of these is the Vienna Genesis, a manuscript of the first half of the 6th cent.
THE END writings, and it placed increasing importance on the production of books and their illumination. Some fragments of the biblical text, written in silver and gold on purple vellum and sumptuously illuminated, are still preserved). Foremost of these is the Vienna Genesis, a manuscript of the first half of the 6th cent.