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Pronouns Forms and Problems. Test Jan. 13. Reminders. A pronoun is a word that is used in place of a noun. Pronouns may serve as subjects, objects, or possessives. He, she, him, her, you, us, we, they, them, it are all pronouns

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reminders
Reminders
  • A pronoun is a word that is used in place of a noun.
  • Pronouns may serve as subjects, objects, or possessives.
  • He, she, him, her, you, us, we, they, them, it are all pronouns
  • Some indefinite pronouns are always singular, some are always plural, and some depend on context.
subjective case pronouns
Subjective case pronouns
  • Sometimes called the NOMINATIVE CASE
  • A pronoun that is subjective (or nominative) is used as a subject or subject complement
  • It can follow a linking verb and rename the subject
  • I, SHE, WE, HE, WHO, THEY

Ex: The boss was she.

objective case pronouns
Objective case pronouns
  • Used as direct object, indirect object, or object of preposition.
  • ME, HIM, HER, US, THEM, WHOM are all objective case pronouns
  •  To find a direct object, use this formula:

subject + verb + what? or who?

  • The indirect object is whoever or whatever receives the direct object.

Example: Crystal gave him it before the class began.

(“him” is the direct object; “it” is the indirect object)

exceptions
Exceptions

Most pronouns will only be used in a certain case (“she” will always be subjective)

  • YOU or IT can be subjective or objective
  • The Smiths or we will call for you.
  • In the above sentence “you” is the object of the preposition, so it is in objective case.
  • You were told to go to the office.
  • In the above sentence “you” is acting as the subject, so it is in the subjective case.

Practice 1, pg. 198

possessives
Possessives
  • Possessive pronouns show that something is owned, or possessed.
  • Possessive pronouns never require an apostrophe.
  • Use possessive pronouns before gerunds (verb form used as a noun, ending in -ing) Ex: His running is driving me crazy!
  • Practice 2, pg. 199
compound subjects objects
Compound subjects/objects
  • The rules are simple: focus on how the pronoun is used in the sentence.
  • If it is the subject or subject complement, it will be in the subjective case.
  • If it is used as a direct object, indirect object, or object of preposition, then it will be in the objective case.
  • If that still isn’t enough, when compound subjects, direct objects, etc., are used, drop one to identify the correct pronoun:

These flowers are from Peter and me.

These flowers are from me.

The Smiths or we will call for you.

We will call for you.

Practice 3, pg. 200

comparisons
Comparisons
  • When pronouns are used in comparisons, they often follow the word than or as.
  • Words are often omitted in comparisons to avoid repetition.
  • Mentally fill in the missing word to help you decide which case the pronoun should be:

Della has been in the choir longer than we (have).

Practice 4, pg. 201

pronouns as appositives
Pronouns as Appositives
  •  An appositive is a noun or noun phrase that identifies or renames another noun.

Ex: Two girls, Diane and she, made all the posters.

  • “Diane and she” identifies the two girls. This is an appositive.
  • Use the same pronouns that you would use if the noun were omitted.

She made all the posters. 

Us boys or We boys went to the store.

Omit the appositive BOYS to see correct pronoun.

reflexive pronouns
Reflexive Pronouns
  • used when the object of a sentence is the same as the subject
when to use a reflexive pronoun
When to use a reflexive pronoun

1. Reflexive pronouns are used when the subject and object are the same.I hurt myself.The band call themselves “Dire Straits”.He shot himself.

2. They are used as the object of a preposition, when the subject and the object are the same.I bought a present for myself.She did it by herself. That man is talking to himself.

3. They are used when you want to emphasize the subject.I'll do it myself. They ate all the food themselves.

pronoun antecedent agreement
Pronoun/antecedent agreement
  • A pronoun must agree in number and person with the noun it refers. This noun is called an antecedent.

Example: The dying tree lost all its leaves.

In the above sentence “tree” is the antecedent and “its” is the pronoun.

pronoun antecedent agreement1
Pronoun/antecedent agreement
  • A pronoun must agree in number with the noun it refers to.

Incorrect: Each of my sisters has their own room.

Correct: Each of my sisters has her own room.

  • Pronouns must be consistent in person.

Incorrect: One’s patience runs thin when I am faced with a slow-moving line at the bank.

Correct: My patience runs thin when I am faced with a slow-moving line at the bank.

shifts in person
Shifts in person

Avoid shifting tenses in your writing.

Incorrect: The worst thing about my not writing letters is that you never get any back.

Correct: The worst thing about my not writing letters is that I never get any back.

gender agreement
Gender Agreement
  • Choose a pronoun that agrees in gender with its antecedent.
  • Sometimes this is difficult if you have a plural or indefinite antecedent.
  • Because “one of my sisters” is clearly feminine, use “her.”
  • Indefinite pronouns like “everybody” could include both men and women.
  • In this instance, some will tell you to use “his or her.” I prefer that you pick one, so it is less confusing.
  • If that seems awkward, try rewriting the sentence.

Everyone is entitled to change his or her mind.

Everyone is entitled to change his mind.

People are entitled to change their minds.

other problems
Other problems
  • A pronoun must clearly refer to its antecedent.

Eva told her mother that she had received a postcard from Alaska.

Who received the postcard, Eva or her mother?

Sometimes this can be cleared up by using the speaker’s exact words:

Eva told her mother, “I received a postcard from Alaska.”

homework
Homework
  • Pg. 213 test 1
  • Worksheets