Lesson 4Principle Wine Regions of the World A unique gift from nature and the earth’s geology
4.0 Introduction. 4.1 Argentina 4.2 Australia 4.3 Austria 4.4 Bulgaria 4.5 Canada 4.6 Chile 4.7 China 4.8 Czech Republic 4.9 England and Wales 4.10 France 4.11 Germany 4.12 Greece 4.13 Hungary 4.14 India 4.15 Israel 4.16 Italy 4.17 Japan 4.18 Macedonia 4.19 New Zealand 4.20 Portugal 4.21 Romania 4.22 South Africa 4.23 Spain 4.24 Switzerland 4.25 United States of America Conclusions References Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World Lesson Overview
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the WorldAims and Learning Outcomes of the Lesson On completion of this lesson the learner will be expected to be able to; • Describe the major wine growing countries and regions, their individual classifications and their related wine laws • Outline the grape characteristics, geographical and geological factors, plus the viticultural and vinification techniques used to produce wines around the world.
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World4.0 Introduction • the world of wine is constantly changing and evolving through investment, innovation, the application of new scientific techniques higher quality wines are being produced. • wine is a gift of nature and the earth’s geology but is mother nature who is the ultimate boss in the end, • the countries explored in this lesson require so many factors to fall into place to produce good wines consistently.
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World4.1 Argentina • Seventy percent of Argentina’s vineyards are located in the state of Mendoza, which lies under the Andes Mountains and is geographically located on the same latitude as Morocco. A unique intricate system of irrigation, which is supplied from the melted snows of the Andes Mountains by a network of canals begun by the native Indians a thousand years ago (which included a legal framework for equitably dividing water rights, that subsequent generations have luckily inherited) coupled with balanced temperatures and little or no disease ensures that crops are huge. The average crop produces an amazing 70 hectolitres. • the most widely planted grape variety is the Malbec once dominant in Bordeaux and flourishing as Auxerrois in Cahors, in Argentina it produces top rich red wine • the best vineyards are located near the Andes due to the unique canal system and high altitudes between 600 to 950 metres • phylloxera is controlled in Argentina by flooding the vineyards with water from big dams located in the Andes Mountains • Torrontes: Argentina’s indigenous white variety, popular and very easy to drink, both for old-style brownish wines and fruiter modern ones. Vineyards and grape varieties Vineyards: The vineyards of Argentina lie above 500 metres above sea level with the exception of Salta (in the sub tropical north), which is close to the town of Cafayate those vineyards reach a height to 2,000 metres. The majority of the vineyards are planted in the parral, or pergola system because of the heat, this helps keep the grapes away from the scorching ground heat. Grape varieties and regions grown: Malbec (Mendoza, Rio Negro) produces full-bodied, bramley red wines with the dark purple colour, rich tannins, peppery and spicy flavours. • Torrontes (Cafayate) produces full-bodied, dry white wines with Muscat-like aromas. • Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, Merlot (Cafayate, Mendoza) planted widely for red wines. • Chardonnay and Viognier (Mendoza) for white wines. • Criolla and Cereza used for basic, local market table wine or in some cases grape concentrates. Major regions and wines of Argentina: Argentina was the first South American country to introduce a DOC system in 1992. Mendoza: only region with a hierarchy of appellations, divided into five regions and a larger number of departments and then subdivisions. San Juan: warmer climates produces light wines, lots of vermouths and grape concentrate. Famatina: far north, very hot contains co-operative cellars, the La Rioja province wines although popular are labelled Famatina Valley because of Spain. Cafayate: the Torrontes (white) grape reins here in this Salta province. High growing altitudes help develop aromas and flavours. Cabernet Sauvignon also grows well here. • Rio Negro: located in the far south, this cool region produces a lot of Malbec
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World4.2 Australia [ Wine map of Australia ]
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World4.2 Australia (continued) • The best vineyards are to the south and close to the sea. Australia’s red and white wines display a delicate fruity softness, which is ideal for immediate consumption. • Climate and weather: Mediterranean, the cooler areas at found at altitude or close to the coast. Drought can be the biggest problem. Weather can also cause vintage variation. • Soils: Very mixed for separate regions, some special soils include the Terra Rossa of Connawarra. • Grape Varieties:Although there are about 90 different grape varieties planted commercially in Australia the main grape varieties grown areWhite: Semillion, Riesling, Chardonnay, Muscat Gordo Blanco, Sauvignon Blanc, Colombard, Verdelho. Black: Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Ruby Cabernet, Grenache, Mataro (Mourvedre), Cabernet Franc. • Geographical Indications (GI):created in 1993 ‘to determine geographical indications for wine in relation to regions and localities in Australia’. The GI is part of Label Integrity Program to ensure the validity of the information on the bottle label. • Local labelling and legal requirements: If regions, varieties or vintages are stated, then 85 per cent of the wine in the bottle must come from those regions, varieties or vintages. Major Australian Regions • New South Wales (Hunter Valley, Central Ranges Zone, Big Rivers Zone) • Victoria (Western Victoria Zone, North-West Victoria Zone, North-East Victoria, Port Phillip Zone) • South Australia (Limestone Coast Zone, Mount Lofty Ranges Zone, Lower Murray Zone, Barossa Zone, Eden Valley region, Fleurieu Peninsular Zone, • Western Australia (Greater Perth Zone, South-West Australia Zone), Tasmania. Major Wines Hunter Valley Semillon, Barossa Shiraz, Connawarra Cabernet Sauvignon, Clare and Eden Valley Rieslings, Adelaide Hills Chardonnay, Yarra Valley Pinot Noir, Margaret River Cabernet Sauvignon, Margaret River Chardonnay, Rutherglen Liqueur Muscat.
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World4.3 Austria Much of the Austrian wine is consumed locally while Germany is it’s biggest export market. Nno country in Europe has changed its attitudes and upgraded its standards so much in the past decade as Austria. Austrian Wine Laws Completely revamped and introduced in 1993, the classification system for the Austrian wine is similar to that of Germany, for example chaptalisation is forbidden for quality wines and the wine label information is also similar for both countries. Classification system for Austrian quality wines. • Trockenbeernaulese (top level) • Eiswein • Ausbruch • Beerauslese • Auslese • Strohwein or Shilfwein. Austrian Vineyards and Grape Varieties The vineyards are mainly concentrated to the east of Austria, 85% of the wines are white and dry made from the indigenous ‘Gruner Veltliner’ (broad variety of flavours) and other varieties, including the noble Riesling (grown for the quality wines giving dry full bodied wines with ripe peachy fruits), Welschriesling (susceptible to noble rot, produces excellent sweet wines in southern Austria), Major Austrian Regions and Wines • Austria is split into four regions, these regions are the most important for the international markets (listed below), which are called Weinbauregion, which in turn are split into Weinbaugebiete and districts Grosslage. • Niederosterreich Lower Austria: Key wines: Wachau, Kamptal, Kremstal using Gruner Veltliner or Riesling and Weinvieretel DAC using Gruner Vertliner. • Burgenland: Key wines: BA, TBA, Eisewein using various GV and Burgenland reds using Blaufrankisch, cuvees. Burgenland lies to the east of Austria on the Hungarian border and produces outstanding sweet wines.
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World4.4 Bulgaria Bulgaria Large amount of money invested in recent years Bulgaria’s winemakers are now producing quality wines. Wine Act of 1978 classified its wines as follows; • Standard wines: bottom level, light wines drank locally, Special wines: covers sparkling, liqueur and fruit wines. • High quality wines geographical origin: wines from unspecified region sold under a brand name, the lowest export standard. • High quality wines with declared geographical origin (DGO): states the grape variety and region for example ‘Russe Welschriesling’ Russe being the producing region. Two varieties are blended to make an original taste. • Controliran: similar to AC in France, limited mainly to single varieties, the word Controliran will appear on the label, label will state the specified region and specified grape variety, this wine will be tasted by a professional panel. • Reserve: this word which only appears on the label on a DGO or Controliran wine and indicates that these wines have been aged in oak for 3-4 years. Special Reserve: limited lots, these wines are the countries best. Bulgarian major wines / grape varieties and wine regions For administrative reasons the country is split into five regions; Black Sea Region, Danube Plain Region, Thracian Valley Region (East and West) and the Struma Valley Region. Of the international red varieties Cabernet Sauvignon wines from Bulgaria was always the major export favourite Merlot and local varieties Mavrud, Melnik, Pamid and Gamza. The whites include Chardonnay, Aligote, Dimiat, Rkatsiteli and Muscat Ottonel. Cabernet Sauvignon (Danube Plain, West and East Thracian Valley), Merlot (East Thracian Valley), Melnik (Struma Valley Region), Chardonnay (Black Sea Region).
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World4.5 Canada Canada: 7,821km from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean, numerous microclimates produced by mountain ranges and bodies of water. Wine Regions: Southern Ontario around the Great Lakes, most notably Niagara Peninsula and the Okanagen Valley of British Columbia. Ontario in Lake Erie North Shore and Prince Edward County. British Columbia, Naramata Beach, Simikameen Valley, Vancouver Island and Kootenay’s. Quebec, Monteregie, Eastern Townships wineries Les Contans de L’est, Lower Laurentials wineries – basses Laurential, Laurentials wineries and Quebec City. Nova Scotia Annapolis Valley, Malaagash Peninsula, La Have River Valley and Bear river valley. Grape varieties: (a) European vinifera – Chardonnay, Riesling, Pinot Noir, (b) Amercian or labruscana – Concord and Niagara (not good grapes), (c ) Hybrids – Baco noir, Marechal Foch, l’Acadie, Leon Millot. Ice wine: began in Germany,Canada now biggest producer, regions most famous are Niagara Peninsula of Ontario, Okangen Valley of British Columbia. Grapes are picked at the coldest moment of a winter’s night, as the grape freezes new sensations of sweet juice are created. Quality Control:VQA Ontario – designated wine authority for Ontario. Originally 3 primary Viticultural Areas or appellations of origin: Niagara Peninsula, lake Erie North Shore and Price Edward County. Now they are 8 Viticultural Areas (15,000 acres of vineyards) recognised located in southern Ontario and British Columbia they account for 98% of Canada’s premium wine.
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World4.6 Chile[ Wine map of Chile ]
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World4.6 Chile (continued) • Chile’s wealth from wine was invested in French style chateaux, vineyards, French grape varieties are popular Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot varietal production sold entirely internationally), Chardonnay (good with greta fruit), Muscat of Alexandria (widely planted northerly vineyards for distillation into Pisco brandy) Semillon and Sauvignon Blanc (flabby here). Carmenere (rare Bordeaux variety produces a specail red elegant), Viognier (to suit US Californian tastes), Foreign investment into vineyard planting and modern wineries. • Only country in world which is Phylloxera free (no grafting needed) geographical layout, Chile also has very strict quarantine conditions • Chiles unique geographical layout: to the North Aatcama Desert which only sees rain every few years, to the east the cold Andes Mountains (which stops phylloxera from Argentina), to the west the cold Pacific, to the south the rain never stops • Natural irrigation: natural water comes down from the Andes Mountains (snow capped) in old Indian canal system (canals and gullies which flood the land) built by the Incas, this is water creates a true Garden of Eden setting • Vineyards are close to these rivers and the valleys are called after the rivers. Chile’s Wine Classification Chile uses a uniquely flexible classification system for its vineyard regions, which is based on four tiers (wines may name as its source any of these four tiers), which include; • regions: for example, Aconcagua region • sub-regions: for example, Casablanca valley • the Area: for example Santa Cruz • the Zone: for example Colchagua valley. Chile’s major regions and wines • Casablanca, Central Valley (white: Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, reds: Pinot Noir), especially Casablanca Sauvignon Blanc. Maipo, Rapel (reds: Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot), especially Rapel Cabernet Sauvignon. Chilean Carmenere. • Northern Zone Aconcagua Valley Region: named after the highest peak of the Andres, at 7,000 metres, visible from Santiago, Aconcagua lies just north of Santiago, this is Chiles real heartland for high-quality grapes. The Casablanca Valley grows the best Chilean reds from Pinot Noir and the good white wines from Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc. • Central Zone Central Valley (Valle Central) Region: known as the real core red wine growing region in Chile this region produces over 90 per cent of Chiles wine exports. Maipo Valley with its many old Cabernet Sauvignon vines is the centre for fine red wines, Rapel Valley (sub region), which contains the Colchagua Valley famous for single and blends of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Camenere, these individual wines are expensive. Curico (sub region) grows lots of international varieties, Miguel Torres starting here in 1975. Maule • Southern Zone Southern Valley Region:this area mainly consists of hillside and vineyards closer to the Pacific Ocean, white wine become more important in the south, its main sub regions Itata and Bio-Bio grow Gewurztraminer and Riesling.
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World4.7 China • Incredible mix of terriors and terrains spanning over 3 million square miles. Sincere 1994 China has put an emphasis on developing its wine market. 1995 there are over 240 wineries in China majority located in the north Shandong province and Shanxi Province (well known ones include Great Wall, Dynasty, Grace and Dragon Seal) . Wine regions • Ningxia: largest wine production and good quality beating French wines in competition (2011). • North east • Hebei • Bohai Bar and the Shandong wine region • Yellow River area • Yunnan • Gansu • Xinjiang Most Notable wine producing regions: Beijing, Yantai, Zhangiakou in Hebei, Yibin in Sichuan, tonghua in Jilin, Taiyuan in Shanxi and Ningxia. Largest producing region: Yantai Penglai (140 wineries producing 40% of China’s wine). Grape varieties:Chinese Government set up 2 national grape germplasm respositories (Zhengzhou fruit Research Institute of the China academy of Agricultural sciences – located at Zhengzhou, Henan province) and Institute of Fruit research of Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences located at Taigu, shanxi province). Both house 1,300 grape varieites for possible cultivation. Popular Varieties cultivated include: Table grapes: Zaomeigui, Zhengzhuo, Zaohong, Fenghuang No 51, Jing Zaojing, Shangdong Zaohong, Jingxiu, Jingya, Zizhenxiang, Shengxiu, Jingyu, Fenghou. Wine grapes: Beichun, Gonliang No 1, Shuangyou, zuoshan No 1. International varieties: Chardonnay, Irtalian Risling, Chenin Blanc, cabernet Franc, cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Syrah, Gamay Noir, Gewurztraminer, Sauvignon Blanc, Pinot Noir. High quality Chinese wines:(just a few samples) Huadong’s - Chardonnay, Huaxia - Dry Red, Changyu’s - Cabernet, Beijing’s - Dragon Seal.
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World4.8 Czech Republic • Two main regions – Bohemia and Moravia, both divided into sub regions, 19,000 hectares of vineyards, most of which located in Moravia. Top quality Moravian white wines known worldwide (i.e Muskat moravsky and reds Cabernet Moravia or Andre. Wine Regions Moravia: (little villages with wine cellars without permanent population), sub regions include; • Znojmo: (aromatic whites), main grape variety Veltlinske Zelene, also grown Sauvignon, Ryzlink rynsky, Muller Thurgau, plus outstanding varieties Muskat moravsky and Rulandske sede, reds – Svatovavrinecke. • Velke Pavlovice: 1,000 wine producers, whites – Tramin cerveny, Veltlinske zelene, Ryzlink vlassky. Heavy soil provides excellent conditions for red wines – most common Svatovavrinecke and Frankovka. • Mikulov: largest area 2, 500 hectares, Valtice is the centre and home of the Czech wine producer Valtice Wine Cellars. • Slovacks: vineyards around Uherske Hradiste (northernmost wine region in Moravia), main varieties Ryzlink rynsky, rulandske bile and Rulandske sede. Dark varieties – Frankovka and zweigeltrebe. Bohemia: (northernmost wine region in Europe, vineyards located around Melnik, Litomerice and Most, vineyards are scattered and spread over protected slopes near rivers – the Vltava, Elbe, Ohre, Berounka, sub regions include; • Melnik: producing Muller Thurgau • Litomerice: serious rival to Melnik. Best kniown cellars are Zernoseky. Varieties include Rulandske bile, Rulandske sede, Ryzlink rynsky
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World4.9 England and Wales • Now recognised as a premium wine producing region, winning many awards, there are over 400 vineyards in England and Wales covering 1,384 hectares, producing top quality sparkling and still wines in their 124 wineries. Wineries breakdown: East Anglia (66), South East (145), central South (96), Midlands (91), North (18), South West (120), Wales (22), Scotland (4), Channel Islands (5). Grape Varieties: Chardonnay (20.6%), Pinot Noir (18.6%), Bacchus (9.6%). Other varieties: (White) Auxerrois, Faberrebe, Huxelrebe, Kerner, Madeleine, Angevine, Muller Thurgau, optima, Orion, Ortega, Pheonix, Regner, Reichsteiner, Rwagier, Schonburger, Seyval Blanc, siegerrebe, Wurzer. (Red) Dornfelder, dunkelfeder, Pinot Meunier, regent, rondo, Trimphe. Labelling and legislation: • English or Welsh wine: made from fresh grapes grown in England (or Wales) and produced in UK wineries. • British wine: imported grapes or grape concentrate made into wine in Britain, labelled as ‘United Kingdom wines’or ‘wine from the UK’. • Protected geographical status: labelled ‘Protected Designation of Origin’ (PDO) or ‘ Protected Geographic Indication’ (PGI) producers will have passed certain analytical and taste parameters, sponsored by UKVA. Producers must prove the geographical origins of the grapes. PDO wines have more stringent rules on origins of their grapes than PGI wines.
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World4.10 France [ Wine map of France ]
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World4.10 France (continued)[ Alsace - The fairytale region ] Key facts regarding Alsace: (also chapter 4 – pp. 88-89) • Alsace subdivides into two main areas the Bas-Rhin (upper area with political capital Strasbourg) and Haut-Rhin (lower area and the best area, contains most of the 50 Grand Cru vineyards in Alsace, best vineyards are located on east acing foothills of Vosges mountains), the wine capital of Alsace is Colmar • the lesser vineyards are located on the plains with the majority of vineyards are small holdings • famous for small growers, highest yield allowance for France 70 hectolitres per hectare. • 2nd most Northern AC wine producing region for still white wine, 99% of Alsace wine is white. • all Alsace wine is bone dry except Vandage Tardiveor Botrytis wines, extra long corks are used for bottling Alsace wines • Alsace was only returned to France after WW2, therefore it only got AC in 1962 – totally different AC system to the rest of France • first to call wines after varietal names this helped Alsace wines to be noticed and recognised • France’s first co-op was set up in 1895 big ones today are located at (Eguisheim, Kientzheim, Beblenheim and Westhalten), co-operatives and merchants in Alsace are important • Alsatians are fanatical about naturalness, they like their wine to stabilise without fining, or anything that involves additions to the wine of any kind except sugar. Wine growing in Alsace / Grape varieties: (also chapter 4 - pp. 89-90) Classifications for The Wines of Alsace – five main Appellations Controlees. In 1962 Alsace was granted AC for the whole region; this originally granted on three (3) AC levels. • 1. Vin d’Alsace (bottom level): white, rose, red wine, anywhere in Alsace, blend of many grapes. Must be bottled in ‘Flute d’Alsace’ bottle. AC Edelzwieker: The name Edelwicker is giving way to wines labelled simply Alsace or Vin d’Alsace. Bottom of the heap served in jugs. • 2. Vin d’Alsace and Grape Variety (GV): if GV is displayed on label this indicates that 100% of the one of the noble grape variety (4) was used. Yield allowance is 80 HecLtr/Hectare. • 3. Vendange Tardive: used to called Auslese / Beerauslese in German times, special permission must be sought for this late harvest date (strict controls on Ph sugar), expensive. Long dry slow ripening, most VT are dry usually rich and mouth-filling, this wine needs 5 years to show true personality. The above three ACs covered the whole Alsace region until 1975 when another AC was introduced. • 4. Alsace Grand Cru (top level): was granted. Their vineyards sites were called lieux-dits and were granted Grand Cru status. The name of the vineyard and the grape variety – only one of four grape varieties are permitted and these must appear on the label. The yield allowance is 55 HecLtr/Hectr – helps quality. • 5. AC Cremant d’Alsace: applies to AC quality sparkling dry white wine blends or varietals. Made in the traditional manner – second fermentation in the bottle, using local grape varieties 6 white and black.
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World4.10 France (continued) [ Bordeaux Region – Wine Map ]
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World4.10 France(continued)[ Bordeaux Region ] • Estates and Châteaux the break-up: Bordeaux is the only region of France where the wine estates are still the same size and shape as they were before the Revolution (leaders confiscated them for themselves). • Bordeaux 3s (3 rivers, 3 main areas, 3 main soil types, 3 main red grapes, 3 main white grapes). Very aristocratic with big Chateau: Bordeaux is probable the finest vineyard in the world, famous for it’s dry and full bodied clarets, the subtlest of all red wines. The best clarets should be allowed to age in the bottle for at least four or five years, and preferable for far longer. Bordeaux also produces distinguished sweet white wines and crisp, dry wines. • Dry wines: Bordeaux, Entre-deux-Mers, Graves. • Medium Dry White: Bordeaux Blanc, Cotes de Blaye. • Sweet White: Barsac, Cerons, Loupiac, Premieres Cotes de Bordeaux, Sauternes, Ste-Croix du Mont. • Red: Bordeaux, Cotes de Blaye, Cotes de Bourg, Graves, Margaux, Medoc, Pauillac, Pomerol, St. Emilion, St. Estephe, St. Julien. • Location: Bordeaux is South West France, it lies at 45 degrees latitude and therefore is quite northerly in the winemaking context. Climate: Bordeaux’s climate is Temperate Maritime (mild & humid – warm summers and mild winters, like Southwest England). Lies in the same latitude as the Cote du Rhone. Wine growing in Bordeaux(chapter 4 – p.92) 1855 Classification of the Medoc - still in use today (chapter 4 – p. 93). Left Bank of river Gironde Appellations(chapter 4 – p. 93) Right Bank of river Gironde Appellations(chapter 4 – p. 94) Between Garonne and the Dordogne Appellations(chapter 4 – p. 94)
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World4.10 France(continued)[ Wine map of the Burgundy region ]
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World4.10 France(continued)[ Burgundy Region ] Burgundy’s famous white wines: Chablis, Macon Blanc, Meursault, Montrachet, Pouilly Fuisse. Burgundy’s famous red wines: Beaune, Bourgogne, Gevrey Chambertin, Macon, Nuits Saint Georges, Pommard, Vosne-Romanee. Location and Climate: Burgundy is to the Northeast of France, its landlocked. Its climate is continental, no sea influence, severe winters, hot summers – unreliable rain. Weather: Frost and hail are major hazards. Frequent summer rains make area prone to grey rot Burgundy main wine growing areas are; Chablis / Cote de Nuits / Cote de Beaune / Cote Chalonnais / Maconnais / Beaujolais. Main Soils: Chablis: limestone overlaid with Kimmeridgian clay, Core d’Or: limestone mixed with marl, Beaujolais: granite. Grape varieties: North Burgundy: Black - Pinot Noir, White - Chardonnay, Aligote. South Burgundy: Black - Gamay, White - Chardonnay. • INAO regulations for the top wines of Burgundy state that the grapes used are Pinot Noir for red wine, Chardonnay for white wine • Yield: is set at 40 hectolitres per hectares for the best, 60 for ordinary (this can change). • Strength of wine: must achieve 12% for best, 10% for ordinary. Grape growing: North: high-density planting, Guyot trained. The best vineyards are on the east – or southeast – facing slopes • South (Beaujolais): Gobelet-pruned, freestanding vines. The best vineyards are on the hillsides in north. Winemaking: • Red: Traditional fermentation with very little use of new oak maturation for Pinot Noir. Carbonic maceration for Beaujolais. • White: Stainlesssteel with very little oak used for Chablis. Barrel fermentation and new oak used for Cote de Beaune Chardonnay. Overall Classification for Burgundy Wines: • Generic: for wines that do not quality for higher AC, must have Bourgogne in title. • District: used for wines from a single district or group of better villages within a district (Cote de Beaume, Macon, Beaujolais). • Commune: used for wines from single communes (villages) allowed own AC (i.e. Gevrey Chambertin, Pommard, Aloxe Corton, Meursault). • Premier Cru: village name followed by vineyard name, used for better vineyards (i.e. Beaume(commune) Bressandeo(vineyard)’. • Grand Cru: vineyard name only, highest level for best vineyards (i.e. Le Clos, Le Corton, Le Montrachet (finest Grand Cru vineyard in the world). Burgundy – three major levels: (1) Domaines – family dynasties, (2) Negociants – shippers, most important they decide on the wines grade, they buy the fruit, wine, mature it and sell it, (3) Co-ops – lower areas, no middle manthey make and sell the wine and share the profits, basic wines. AC is granted to demarcated areas – knowldege is crucial. Bourgogne AC (reds: PN, Gamay, Cesar, Tressot), (whites: Chardonnay. Bourgogne Grand Ordinaire AC (ordinary wine) Main Areas of Burgundy: Chablis / Core d’Or / Cote Nuit / Cote de Beaune / Cote Chalonnaise / Cote Maconnais – Macon / Cote Beaujolais. Further detailed information: (Chapter 4 – pp. 96-100) .
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World4.10 France(continued)[ Champagne Region – Wine Map ]
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World4.10 France(continued)[ Champagne Region ] 68,000 acres (27,500 hectares) in Champagne, with 19,000 proprietors; it is split up among 8,000 holdings of a hectare or less. Only 10% belongs to the great exporting firms. Soils:Belemnita(rich in rare fossil): magic chalk on the hills and slopes, Micraster: magic chalk on the plains or flat land. These unique chalky thin sub soils (often only 60cm) are excellent for drainage, they reflect heat and are excellent for storage (cellars are complete cities underground). The chalk also helps the Ph balance. The chalky subsoil absorbs the rain and also helps to reflect the heat of the sun. The topsoil is gravely which helps to aerate the roots. Main grape varieties: Pinot Noir (gives backbone and structure), Pinot Meunier (gives fruit and aroma, its late budding and early ripening makes it better suited to this northern climate,), Chardonnay (gives finesse and elegance) are the main grapes with the Arbanne, Petit Meslier, Pinot Blanc (used as salt and pepper). The Pinot Meunier is especially used in bad weather to add fruit and aroma. Main Areas:Montagne de Reims, Vallee de la Marne, Cote de Blancs Training systems: 2 high training systems (AC regulations) these are; Cordon de Royat (high) , Guyot: (single and double systems) Champagne making – the process: Methode Champenois: This unique method can only be used with Champagne. For all other sparkling wines using this method they use the term methode traditionale. (chapter 4 – pp. 101-104). Styles of Champagne: NV: Non-Vintage, V: Vintage, Blanc de Blancs: Champagne made entirely from white grapes (Chardonnay),Blanc de Noir: Champagne made entirely from black grapes, AC Coteaux Champenois: Created in 1974, this AC covers still wines from the Champagne area. Champagne: Cuvee Prestige: usually named after someone special in the company (i.e. Louise Pommery). Cremant Method: not allowed to be used in the Champagne region, must be 9 months in contact with the lees. Cremant: half sparkling, or creaming. Champagne bottle sizes: (quarter bottle, half bottle, bottle), Magnum: 2 bottles in one, Jeroboam: 4 bottles in one, Rehoboam: 6 bottles in one, Methuselah: 8 bottles in one, Nebuchadnezzar: 20 bottles in one.
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World4.10 France(continued)[ Corsica / Jura and Savoie Regions ] Corsica: Grapes, appellations • All the winegrowing regions lie in the coastal zones. Corsica, the sunny French Island in the Mediterranean, produces dry strong wines. The roses and whites are best drunk within a year of production, but the reds age well. Corsica produces both fine AC wines and a large quantity of Vin de pays. • Best known appellations for White, Rose and Red: Calvi, Coteaux d’Ajaccio, Patrimonto, Vin de Corse. Corsica’s best and most characterful wines come from the island’s few indigenous grape varieties, plus muscats and light malmseys (called Vermentino) from the northeast cape. Jura and Savoie (the mountain wine of the Alps) The wines of Jura and Savoie can be expensive because they are labour intensive due to their hillside locations at the Alps, some its vineyards are found at 850 metres. In this region they also grow old grape varieities some stretching back 80 years. Savoie: background, grapes, appellations • The wines of Savoie are delicate, refreshing, and alpine in spirit. Savoie wine is nearly all white, it Epitomizes the little local wine travels only in legend. The main grape used is Jacquere: dry and mild like ethereal Muscadet. The best Savoie grape is: Altesse or Roussette. Jura: background, grapes and appellations • The Jura is a large and beautiful area of France running south along the Swiss border between Alsace and Lake Geneva. Although many of the Jura wines have a unique character, vineyards are scattered and occupy only a tiny fraction of the region. Its superior appellations, Arbois, Chateau-Chalon and L’Ecoile, all count for something. Its red and whites are soft and easy. Jura is the home of Pernod, during the nineteenth century large quantities of absinthe were made here; Anis is the modern, tamed down version. • Louis Pasteur was born at Dole in Jura in 1822 and was the first scientist to turn his mind to wine research, a museum commemorates his research and life in his home town in the Jura. • Cotes Du Jura AC: the regional AC for Jura covers a wide variety of wines: dry whites, reds, roses, vins jaunes (yellow wine made with Savignin, Ponesard, Chardonnay) and vins de paille. The southern part of the region the pink vin gris from the Poulsard GV. • The pride of the Jura is its full-bodied Vin Jaune (aged yellow wine) as Chateau Chalon into a sort of pale-dry sherry. (Savagnin grape, late harvested, slow fermentation, left in oak barrels then transferred to glass top jars and aged for 6 years), bottled in 62cl Chavelin bottles. Vin Paille (straw wine) aged for 3 years. • When you taste Jura wines always taste the red before the whites because of the white wine strengths.
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World4.10 France(continued)[ Loire Valley Region – Wine Map ]
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World4.10 France(continued)[ Loire Valley Region ] The valley of Loire is spread into four main vineyard areas or (sub regions) which stretch across northern France from West to East Nantais, Anjou, Saumur, Touraine, Central Vineyards.The Loire valley is famous for light summery, dry and medium dry white wines, Including Muscadet, Sancerre and sparkling Saumur. Anjou is best known for its Rose and its medium dry and sweet white wines. Touraine produces light, crisp white and red wines as well as white Vouvray, which can be still or sparkling. • Location: Northwest France. • Climate: because of the length of the river, there are considerable climatic differences between the regions. Nantais and Anjou: maritime influenced by the Atlantic ocean, Touraine and Central Vineyards: increasing continental influence. The Loire valley and its many tributaries play a moderating role. • Soils overall: Varied, tuffeau in parts of Anjou-Saumur and Touraine. Loire Valley best known wines. (Chapter 4 – pp. 107-108) • Vin de Pays (VDP): is produced generically for the whole area of Loire Valley over 13 departments and is known as ‘Vin de Pays Jardin de France’. VDP can also be used within an area (example VDP Anjou). • Dry White: Muscadet, Pouilly-Fume, Sancerre, Touraine Sauvignon. • Medium Dry White: Anjou Blanc, Touraine, Vouvray. • Sweet White: Anjou, Coteaux du Layon. • Sparkling White: Montlouis, Saumur, Touraine, Vouvray. • Rose: Cabernet d’Anjou, Rose d’Anjou. • Red: Anjou, Bourgueil, Chinon, Touraine. Loire Valley – key wines(Chapter 4 – pp. 107-108) • Nantais: Muscadet, Muscadet de Sevre-et-maine, Sur Lie. • Anjou-Saumur: Anjou Rose, Cabernet Anjou, Coteaux du Layon, Savennieres, Saumur, Saumur-Champigny. • Touraine:, Reds on CF or Gamay: Chinon, Bourgueil, Saint-Nicolas-de-Bourgueil. Whites CB Vouvray. • Central Vineyards: Finest white wines on SB: Sancerre, Pouilly-Fume, Menetou-Salon. • VDP: VDP du Jardin de la France.
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World4.10 France(continued)[ Rhone Valley Region – Wine Map ]
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World4.10 France(continued)[ Rhone Valley Region ] Location: southeast France , Climate: North: Southern continental, South: Mediterranean. The real danger here is the Mistral wind (comes for 6-9 days) a major wind that comes down the whole Rhone Valley and has the ability to do real damage. Soils: North: granite, decomposing schist soil, South: various (quartz pebbles, clay and alluvial) and ‘pudding-stone’ pebbles in Chateauneuf-du-Pape. Grape growing: North: steep, sloped vineyards with vines staked to aid wind protection. South: flatter vineyards, windbreaks used to aid wind protection. Winemaking:Lighter: carbonic maceration, fuller styles: traditional fermentation and oak maturation. The Rhone Valley produces 95% red wine, some Vins Deux Naturals Rhone Valley sub divides into 2: Northern Rhone and Southern Rhone are they split by the nugget, which splits the valley naturally into two parts Northern Rhone vineyard areas are on steep narrow gauges most of the wine is produced on the right side of river Southern Rhone vineyards are spread out on both sides of the river Northern Rhone produces the best wines (5% of total Rhone production) and the south produces the most wines (95%. of total Rhone production) Northern Rhone: location, soils and appellations • AC system started here. Northern Rhone: The Crus here are the best. • Hillside: the best wines are grown on the hillsides in because of (Good drainage / sun / lower yield allowance) • Grape variety: Red: Syrah is the only red variety allowed. White: Viognier, Roussanne, Marsanne is the only white varieties allowed. • Tain: this wonderful town sits on the a little hill of Hermitage, the river surrounds the famous hill of Hermitage, which is fantastic growing conditions. • Key Wines: Cote Rotie AC (roasted slope), Condrieu AC, Chateau Grillet AC, St. Joseph AC, Cornas AC, St. Peray AC, Clairette de Die AC. Southern Rhone: location, soils and appellations Grape varieties: Grenache grape is the most important in the southern Rhone but it is no good on its own the grapes listed below bring out its best. Grenache can make 15% no problem, if left to its own devices but people usually don’t want big wines. Black: Grenache Noir, Syrah (gives colour), Mourvedre (gives fruity taste), Cinsault. White: Grenache Blanc, Clairette (gives acidity), Marsanne, Rousanne, Muscat (grapy, fruits, very ripe grapes), Picpoule (little obscure). • 95% of the Southern Rhone wine is Red wine, well known for Cotes de Rhone AC • different microclimates meaning different grapes. Key wines: Cotes du Rhone, Cotes du Rhone-Villages, Vacqueyras, Gigondas, Chateauneuf-du-pape, Tavel, Rhone Satellites: Costieres de Nimes. • biggest difference between the North and South Rhone is the north uses only single GV for their wines whereas the south uses multiple GV & blends for there wines AC Classification for Southern Rhone wines. • AC Villages, AC Cotes du Rhone, AC Districts , AC Gigondas (villages with there own AC). If a village is listed on its own, the wine must be from that village only
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World4.10 France(continued)[ Provence, Languedoc and Roussillon Region ] More than a third of all French wine is grown in the area (Roussillon, Corbieres, Minervois and Languedoc known as the Midi. With over 865,000 acres (350,000 hectares) it is the biggest vineyard region in the world. Location: Southern Mediterranean France. Provence: east of Rhone to Italian border. Languedoc-Roussillon: west of Rhone to Spanish border. Climate: Mediterranean. Provence: location, soils and appellations • Provence is home to France’s oldest vineyards but overall the region is better known for its beaches and arts festivalsthan for its wines. However, the area has five small ACs (Bandol, les Baux-de-Provence, Bellet, Cassis and Palette), but most of the wine comes from the much larger areas of the Cotes de Provence, Ctoeaux Varios, Coteaux de Pierrevert and Coteaux d’Aix-en-Provence. • Provence key wines: White, Rose and Red: Cotes de Provence, Coteaux d’Aix-en-Provence, Bandol Vin de Pays (VDP) Bouches du Rhone, de Vaucluse. • Grape varieties: Black: Mourvedre, Grenache, Cinsault, Syrah, Cabernet Sauvignon (for red and rose). Languedoc – Roussillon (also called the Midi): location, soils and appellations • Huge viticultural area,together provides one-third of France’s vineyard acreage and an average yearly production of 18 million hectolitres of wine. • Grape varieties: AC Black: Carignan, Cinsualt, Grenache, Mourvedre, Syrah (for AC red and rose). VDP Black: Merlot, cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, Mourvedre (for VDP red and rose). VDP White: Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Viognier. • Main appellations : Languedoc ACs: Clairette de Bellegarde, Costieres de Nimes, Coteaux du Languedoc, Clairette du Languedoc, Faugeres, St. Chinan, Minervois, Cabardes, Cotes de la Malapere VDQS, Limoux, Cremant de Limoux, Blanquette de Limoux, Corbieres, Fitou. Pic St-Loup = Coteaux du Languedoc Cru. • Roussillon ACs: Cotes du Roussillon-Villages, Cotes du Roussillon, Collioure. Fortified wines or Vins Doux Naturels : Languedoc: Muscat de Lunel, Muscat de Mireval, Muscat de Frontignan, Muscat de St- Jean de Minervois. Roussillon: Maury, Riversaltes and Muscat de Riversaltes, Banyuls. Key ACs to look for are; Fitou, Corbieres, Costieres de Nimes, Cotes du Roussillon, Faugeres, Minervois, St Chinian and Coteaux du Languedoc.
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World4.10 France(continued)[ South West Region ] • The wines of the south west don’t fall into any single category. They range from the dry reds and whites of Galliac to sweet Jurancon whites, full red Buzet and the powerful wines of Cahors. The area also produces a large amount of Vin de Pays. • Location : South West of France, Climate: continental, with some maritime influence in the west. • SW France Black grape varieties: Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc. • SW France White grape varieties: Semillon, Sauvignon Blanc. • South West – key wines: Dry wine: Vin de Pays, Sweet White: Jurancon Red: AC Cahors, AC Cotes de Buzet, AC Gaillac. The Micro Technique: Micro-oxygenation (called microbullage) developed by Patrick Ducournau of la Chapelle Lenclos, this process introduces O2 (a timbel per litre, this slows oxygenation in the wine and microfuses the wine, helps reduce painful tannin levels achieved in this region. SW France (sometimes referred to Bordeaux look-alikes) : main appellations: AC Bergerac: Red, rose and white, AC Cotes de Duras, AC Buzet, AC Cahors, AC Madiran, Vin de Pays des Cotes de Gascogne, AC Gaillac.
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World4.11 Germany [ Wine Map of Germany ]
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World4.11 Germany (continued) Background: German wines are full of character and interest unlike most wines they were made not for drinking with food, but for social occasions. Germany’s vineyards lay along the river Rhine and its tributaries. They are scant in the extreme south and thickest in Rheinland-Pfalz near the French border. German wines are all about sweetness. Climate and weather: Germany has a Northern continental climate, this variable weather (for example spring frosts, heavy rains in July and August) gives rise to vintage variations but the long autumns encourage noble rot. Grape varieties:black Spatburgunder, Dornfelder , white Riesling (accounts for a quarter of all plantings, Muller Thurgau, Kerner, Scheurebe. Vinification: Chaptalisation allowed with the exception of QmP wines, Sussreserve (sterile grape juice) could be used for sweetening wines at bottling. Key Areas and Wines: Mosel-Saar-Ruwer: Bernkastel, Piesport, Saar, Ruwer, Nahe: Schlossbockelheim, Rheingau: Rudesheim, Hochheim, Johannesburg, Rheinhessen: Theinterrace, Nierstein, Pfalz: Forst, Deidesheim, Baden: Kaiserstuhl-Tuniberg. (Further information: Chapter 4 – pp. 118) Riesling: Germanys most famous noble variety was first discovered in the Johannesburg region, other versions of this famous grape which should not be confused as they are poor imitations include the Welsh Riesling (Austrian), Laski Rizling (Slovenia), and the Olaszrizling (Austrian). German wine classification: Quality wines – 2 top levels: Qualitatswein bestimmter Anbaugebiete (QbA), Qualitatswein mit Pradikat (QmP) (Further information: Chapter 4 – pp. 115). 2 bottom levels: Deutscher Tafelwein, Landwein (simliar to Vin de Pays in France, can come from one of 17 designated regions). IP number: all German wines must have an IP number for total traceability and quality indication. QmP Level: at this quality level only natural sugar is allowed not Chaptalisation. Liebfraumilch: this famous QbA wine from Germany, actually got it’s name from medieval times and is always made from a blend of four grape varieties (Silvaner, Kerner, Muller-Thurgau and Riesling-only a sprinkle of this one). Liebfruammilch can come from 1 of these four areas Rheinhessen, Rheinpflatz, Nahe, or Rheingau. The top producers are single vineyard using more Riesling and Gerwurtztraminer in the mix. Oechsle: this is the scale used to indicate the sugar content of grape juice.
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World4.12 Greece • Local indigenous varieties are blended with international ones to produce some superlative wines in a number of areas. The best appellations to look out for are Naoussa, Nemea and Thira (Santorini). Greek Wine Laws • The wine laws in Greece follow the EU regime, there are two terms for quality wines; • Appellation d’Origine de Qualite Superieure (AOQS): applies to light wines, currently there are 20 classified regions. • Appellation d’Origine Controlee (AOC): applies to liqueur wines, eight regions hold this classified, these wines are primarily made from dried Muscat grapes, or the red Mavrodaphne. • A Vin de Payscategory covers the international varieties and non-traditional style of wine. The overall majority of Greek is table wine. Major Greek Regions and Wines • Major wines: Naoussa Macedonia (red: Xinomavro), Nemea – Peloponnese (red: Agiorgitiko), Santorini – Island (white: Assyrtiko), Major Vin de Pays (reds: various local & international GV, whites: various local & international GV). • Northern Greece:the home of Naoussa appellation red wines, which lies in these Macedonian regions planted at altitude due to the cool climate here. • The Peloponnese Peninsular: the major area here is Nemea which produces red wine exclusively from the Agiorgitiko grape from vineyards above 250 metres because of the regions mild winters and hot summers. • The Islands: the Santorini island holds the reputation for strong dry whites made from the Assyrtiko grape, which holds its acidity well produces wines of Viognier like flavours, yields are low, • Crete produces the greater volume of wine for Greece. Cephalonia produces good medium bodied, crisp wines with citrus fruit from the Robola variety.
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World4.13 Hungary Hungary’s vast country is dominated by the largest lake in Europe, Lake Balaton. The soil is ideal for cultivation of red variety Kadarka and white Olaz Riesling. Tokaj with its volcanic soil, river mist and the long dry warm autumn create excellent conditions for ripening of the strong acidic Furmint and the softer perfumed Harslevelu grapes which help to crate Tokaj the famous dessert wine which should always be slightly chilled. Many regard it as an excellent tonic. Hungarian Wine Laws • Hungarian wine laws are based on the French appellation controlee system called Minosegi Bor, which ensures quality through geographical origin and quality status. Hungary’s 22 wine districts were classified under this system and divided into three regions. All Hungarian wines are classified under one of the following three headings; • Asztali Bor (Table Wine) • Minosegi Bor (Quality Wine) this category is similar to QWPSR • Special Quality Wine: applies to Noble rot wines, bottles must bear the state wine seal. Major Hungarian Regions and Wines Key wines: Tokaji (Furmint – powerful white wine grape gives flavours of apples when young, developing into nuts and honey in maturity, Harslevelu – linden leaf, a late ripening grape prone to botrytis, aromatic with flavours of orange blossom, great for this dessert wine). Bull’s Blood (red blend mainly Kekfrankos which gives light purple-coloured wine with high acidity) this famous wine grown in the Eger region. Varietal wines (reds and whites with Chardonnay, Irasi Oliver is an Muscat cross, Pinot Gris, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon). Hungary divides into three board areas in relation to its vineyards Hungary’s 22 wine regions lie within the three board areas • The Great Plain: in the southeast, which is ideally suited to industrial winemaking. • Trans-Danubia:these regions surround lake Balaton and are protected by a hilly terrain; soils are volcanic to basalt-rich sand, which drains well. • Northern Hungary: hilly terrain, the most famous and prestigious of all Hungarian wine regions lies in this area at Tokaj-Hegyalja in the foothills of the northern mountains. Tokaji is produces Hungary’s most prestigious wines it is named after the local town of Tokaj. These wines takes are generally spilt into two groups, the quality wines, bottled into 75cl bottles, and the special quality wines, bottled into the traditional 50cl dump bottles.
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World4.14 India • Winemaking has existed throughout most of India’s history but was particularly encouraged during the time of the Portuguese and British colonization. Wine Regions: Six main wine regions (listed below), high heat and humidity of the far east half of the country limits viticultural activitiy. • Champai: located in Mizoram, most Southernly of the seven sister states of eastern India, mountainous region, semi-tropical to temperate climate, cooler area on highest elevation areas. Grape growing most prevalent eastern part of state, centred around towns Champhai and Hnahlan. • Deccan Plateau: powerhouse of current Indian wine production, three sub-regions (northern part centred on town of Nashik (or Nasik) – new wineries and Nasik wine park (offers small producers ability to share facilities plus tax reliefs, Sula wines (major producer here), central sub-region from Narayangaon through Pune to Baramati (home to teo important wine producers Chateau Indage and Four Seasons wines. Southern sub-region from Maharashtra and Karnataka with wine production around Sangli and Bijapur, the Krishna valley wine park near Sangli is run simliar to Nasik wine park. • Goa: west of Deccan Plateau, low altitude coastal state, towards the east it climbs in western Ghats to maximum of 1,167m. Specialised in port-like fortified wines using Vitis labrusa varieties like Bangalore Blue. • Nandi Hills: 45km north of Bangalore, growers working with French varietals to produce some of India’s best wines. Grape production: India is home to several indigenoustable grape varieites (most common are the Anabeshahi, Arkavati and Arkashyam), non-native grapes include Bangalore Blue (isabella) and Gulabi (Black Muscat). Turkish grape Sultana (most widely planted grape in India covers over half of the 148,000 acres planted. Imported French varieties (Sauvignon Blanc, Zinfandel, Chenin Blanc, Clairette Blanche).
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World4.14 Israel • Viticulture has existed in Israel since biblical times, the book of Deuteronomy the fruit of the vine was listed as one of the seven blessed species of fruit found in Israel (Robinson, 2006). • Presently there are 35 commercial wineries in Israel and over 250 boutique wineries. Wine regions:Five vine-growing regions, 50,000 dunams of vineyards, 80% of these located in Shomron, Samson and Galilee regions. • Galil: Galilee, includes the Golan Heights (high elevation, cool breezes, well-drained soils). • Judean Hills: surrounding the city of Jerusalem. • Shimshon (Samson): located between the Judean Hills and the Coastal Plain. • The Negev: a semi-arid desert region where drip irrigation has made grape growing possible. • The Sharon plain: near Mediterranean coast, just south of Haifa around towns of Zichron Ya’akov and Binyamina (largest grape growing area in Israel). Grape varieties: • Most widely planted: Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Merlot and Sauvignon Blanc. • Emerging varieties: Cabernet Franc, Gewurztraminer, Muscat Canelli, Riesling and Syrah • Other varieties: Emerald Riesling, Muscat of Alexandria, Argaman. Primary concern in Israeli wine production: • Maintaining acid levels to balance the naturally high sugars that the warm climate of the region produces.
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World4.16 Italy [ Wine map of Italy includes DOC, DOCG regions ]
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World4.16 Italy (continued) • Quality levels: North of Italy holds 52% of the quantity and the majority of the DOC and DOCGs quality wines, the southholds 48% of the quantity and the wine lake. • Soils: variable ranging from volcanic soils to moraines in the north. • Grape varieties: the biggest grape variety throughout Italy is Trebbiano (like a weed similar to Ugni Blanc in France, which is principally used for distilling. The major Black: Local varieties Nebbiolo, Sangiovese, Barbera, Dolcetto, Corvina, Montepulciano, Aglianico, Primitivo. International varieties Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Pinot Noir. White: Local varieties Trebbiano, Malvasia, Verdicchio. International varieties Chardonnay, Pinot Grigio (Pinot Gris). • Viticulture, training systems: high-trained vines in the north, low-trained, high density planting in the south. • Vinification practices:Traditional fermentation and the use of old wood. Modern fermentation with temperature control stainless steel and the use of new oak barriques. • Regions:Politically Italy is divided into 20 regions or wine departments, each of which enjoys a certain degree of autonomy. In every region wine is produced at least of DOC quality. Major wine regions are North West, North East, Central and Southern Italy. Regional identification is very important. Italian Wine Laws:Italian wine laws is set on four different quality levels starting at the top level with; • Denominazoine di Origine Controllata e Garantita (DOCG) 1992 introduced: a DOC with a guarantee, the highest level for Italian wine, mainly all in Northern Italy, southern Italy is too hot to produce DOCG. Listed among these wines are Chianti, Asti and Moscato d’Asti, Barolo, Barbaresco, Brunello di Montalcino. • Denominazione di Origine Controllata (DOC)1963 introduced: demarked region based on soil, certain viticulture and vinification practices, maximum yields allowed laid down by authorities and minimum alcohol achieved. (Chianti, Orvieto or maybe Valpolicella) have this delimited DOC area extended beyond the original vineyard due to for example historical significance, these are usually the best sites and carry the word Classico. • Indicazione Geografica Tipica (IGT): introduced in 1992 it was designed to absorb those Vini da Travola allowed to specify their region or district of origin IGT is similar to France’s Vin de Pays. • Vino de Tavola: bottom level these arebasic wines but on the decline. The majority of these wines are produced in the south of Italy and Sicily.
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World4.16 Italy (continued)[ Major Italian Regions and Wines ] North West Italy produces red, white and sparkling wines, it divides into 4 regions (Liguria, Valle d’Aosta, Lombardia, Piemonte) in terms of quality and the wines are always named after the Commune or area where the vine grows. • Main wine areas:Barolo, Barbaresco, Barbera d’Asti, Dolcetto d’Alba, Gavi • Grape varieties: Nebbiolo grown in this North West Italian region is the finest red grape variety in Italy. The Nebbiolo (meaning fog) is a late ripening grape. The best comes from around the town of Alba (for example Barolo and Barbersco). Flavours of violets and raspberries, prunes and chocolates, truffles and liquorice with good acidity and tannin always present. Pinot Grigio this is the biggest grape variety in the North West Italy. North East Italy this region relies less on tradition and embraces modern ideas. It consists of 3 major zones; • Trentino Alto Adige: Key DOC wines: Alto Adige (Schiava, Lagrein, Riesling, Gewurtraminer, others) and Trentino (Pinot Grigio, Teroldego). • Veneto: Valpolicella DOC (Corvina, Rondinella, Molinara and others), can range in style from light, cherry red to the rich Port like Recioto and Amarone. Valpolicella DOC structure (chapter 4 – p. 127) • Fruili-Venezia Giulia: Key Wines: Fuili Grave DOC (Reds: Refosco, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, white: Tocai Friulano, Pinot Gris).
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World4.16 Italy (continued)Major Italian Regions and Wines Central Italy • Emilia-Romagna: (Bolognese sauces, Parma ham, Parmesan cheese and balsamic vinegar). Key wines Lambrusco di Sorbara DOC, and Lambrusco Grasparossa di Castelvetro DOC. Both are trained on high trellis to maintain acidity, around Modena. • Tuscany (Tosana) : Six DOCG areas, home of the famous ‘Super Tuscans’ and Chianti wines. Key Wines: Chianti Classico / Ruffina / Colli Senesi DOCG (Sangiovese), Chianti, Brunello di Montalcino DOCG, Vino Nobile di Montepulciano DOCG most expensive wine in Northern Italy, Vernaccia di San Gimignano DOCG, Toscana IGT. • Marche: sold in green, amphora elongated curved bottles. Key wines: Verdicchio dei Castelli di Jesi (white:Verdicchio),Rosso Conero (red: Montepulciano and Sangiovese), a good red wine, full bodied, deep coloured and low in tannins. • Umbria: known for its white wines of Orvieto, tuffeau soils here,. Key wines: Orvieto DOC (Trebbiano, Grechetto, Malvasia, Verdello), • Latium (Lazio): mainly white wines here, Frascati DOC is the best known (Trebbiano Toscano, Malvasis di Candia, Malvasia del Lazio, Greco), • Abruzzo: on the east coast behind the knee of Italy,two major DOC Montepulciano d’Abruzzo DOC for red wines, Trebbiano d’Abruzzo DOC for white wines. Southern Italy and the Islands • Overall Campania, Basilicata, Puglia and Calabria are primarily known for producing vast quantities of higly alcoholic red wine, much of which is exported to strengthen the blended ‘table wines’ of Europe and boost the Vermouths of Turin. In the south of Italy you get more blends because the wines will age quicker. • Campania (Naples): few DOCs, Taurasi DOCG great red wine. Puglia: heel of Italy, Key Wines: Salice Salentino DOC (Negroamaro, Malvasia Nera), Copertino DOC (Negroamaro, Malvasia Nera), IGT wines (Primitivo, Negroamaro, others). • Basilicata: located on the instep of Italy, a mountainous region, agricultural economy. Aglianico grape reins and one DOC wine stands out Aglianico del Vulture DOC. • Calabria: a lot of poverty, basic vineyards, the best Ciro wine is made from the Greco grape variety. • Sicily: largest and most area under vines in Italy, the main production comes from the western end. Key wines: Corvo (Duca di Salaparuta), red wine. Good whites come from Alcamo. The real quality wines of Sicily are Inzolia and Grillo. Marsala the dessert wine is the most important wine of Sicily. Must be fortified with grape spirit and may be sweetened. • Sardinia: Mostly co-operatives here, grape varieties (white: vermentino, malvasis, vernaccia and moscato, reds: cannonau and monica, mostly highly alcoholic wines, Cannonau 13.5%). Overall sales to Italy’s mainland are primarily used for blending and the European Union wine lake.
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World4.17 Japan Japan has a long history of vine cultivation, Yamanashi is the most important 100km west of Tokyo surrounded by mountains (including Mount Fuji). 40% of Japan’s domestic wine production comes from this region’s 80 wineries. Main regions for wine production: Hokkaido and Yamanashi, both fostered strong production with the ‘one village one speciality movement’. Grape varieties / wines:Muscat Bailey A – widely used red grape developed in Japan by Zenbei Kawakami (mix of Bailey and Muscat Hamburg types. Koshu(Japan’s signature grape variety) yields delicate dry white wines, Yamanshi region accounts for 95% of Koshu plantings (480 hectares). Quality control: ‘Mark of origin’ legal designation for wine produced in Japan similar to AOC.No nationwide organization of legal designation, anything domestically fermented or imported can be labelled ‘Japanese wine’ . Independent self-governing municipal bodies have begun systems of regional appellation (i.e. Nagano Prefecture’s ‘ Appellation Control System’ and Koshu’s ‘ ‘Wine Domain of Origin certificate Regulation’ .
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World4.18 Macedonia Pearl of the Balkans, contains diverse terrain, while part of former Yugoslavia it was a major wine producer. 1980s accounted for two thirds of Yugoslav wine production. After the breakup wine production decreased from 1.8mil hectolires to 447,000 in 2002. • Currently produces 22,400 hectares of vineyards. 30,000 hectares of vineyards for table grapes. • Red wine production dominates (80%) Macedonian wine production. • In European Union ‘Macedonian wine’ is a protected geographical indiciation (PGI) Wine growing regions • Povardarje:around the capital Skopje, centrally located in the country and the most important region. • Pcinja-Osogovo: to the east on the border with Bulgaria. • Pelagonija-Polog: around Lake Ohrid, to the west on the border with Albania. Grape varieties (common in cultivation includes a large proportion of indigenous varieties, and common Central Europe and the Balkans varieties). • Red varieties: Vranec (Vranac) – most common variety of Macedonia, Kratosija, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot. • White varieties: Smederevka, Welschriesling (Laski Rizling), Chardonnay, Sauvignon, Sauvignon Blanc and Zilavka.
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World 4.19 New Zealand [ Wine map of New Zealand ]
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World 4.19 New Zealand(continued) • New Zealand (NZ) consists of two long narrow islands with the Pacific ocean to their right and the Tasman Sea to their left therefore the climate is maritime with the exception of the northern vineyards around Auckland which is subtropical. The climate differs for the other regions as follows Marlborough - north-east of South Island (sunny), Central Otago most southernly vineyard area in world (dry and continental). Most vineyards in NZ are located on the eastern seaboard, heavy rainfall is the biggest challenge. Grape varieties, regions NZ • Winemaking: NZ used their extensive experience of the dairy industry (temperature control stainless steel, hygiene) to deliver excellent varietal creations in their wines, most noteably their Sauvignon Blanc. As pioneers in canopy management and trellising techniques helped them to deliver great flavours and sugars. • Grape Varieties: Sauvignon Blanc (SB) is NZ best with Marlborough SB marked as the best. Chardonnay is widely planted delivering pure, clean fruit and crisp acidity especially Gisborne (riper, exotic), Marlborough and Central Otago (lean). Pinot Noir in Martinborough (cherry and velvety), Central Otago (storng flavours and complex). Wine Regions of NZ South Island: Marlborough big SB area (north east corner around the town of Blenheim, sunny climate, excellent vineyards on the Wairau Valley (stony soils). Chardonnay and Pinot Noir also planted here used for sparkling wines. • Nelson (north west corner of the island, fruit orchards), late harvest wines. Canterbury is developing, Most of the vineyards around Waipara and outside Christchursh. • Central Otago (south, continental climate warm days and cool nights). Irrigation is good, Pinot Noir, Pinot Gris, Riesling planted. North Island: Auckland region: mainly red wines (heavy clay soils). • Poverty Bay – Gisborne (east coast) fertile soils good Chardonnay. • Hawkes Bay (south on east coast) across towens of Hastings and Napier, Chardonnay and Cabernet Suavignon, Merlot (especially Gimblett Road). • Wairarapa (north Wellington) – Martinborough, good Pinot Noir and small good wineries.
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World 4.20 Portugal [ Wine map of Portugal ]
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World 4.20 Portugal(continued) Location and size: south west Europe, As a land mass Portugal is 1/7 the size of the whole Iberian Peninsula. Climate , weather and major rivers: south (Mediterranean), inland (continental), near the coast (maritime), because no place in Portugal is further than 150 km from the sea, rain can be a problem near this coast. The major rivers Minho, Douro, Mondego, Tejo and the Guadiana help temper these various climatic conditions throughout the country. Soils: Bairrada (limestone and clay), Douro Valley and Dao (granite and schist), the coast (sandy Colores soil). Grape varieties: Black (Baga, Tinta Roriz, Touriga Nacional, Trincadeira, Periquita), White (Loureiro, Alvarinho, Encruzado). Viticulture and vinification: the unqiue vine training used is called Ramisco (this involves bending the branch into the sandy soil where it grows up as a vine so there is no need for grafting and no phylloxera). Tradtional fermentation and use of old casks, modern fermentation with temperature control, use of stainless steel and new oak. Portuguese Wine Laws Portugal revised its wine legislation in 1999 to upgrade a lot of IPR wines, these IPR and DOC wines are identified by a paper sela (Selo de Origem), which is usually placed on the back label of the bottle. Overall there are four different quality levels of wines from Portugal; • Denominacao de Origem Controlada (DOC): this is the top level, similar to AC. • Indicacao de Proveniencia Regulamentada (IPR): similar to VDQS. • Vinho regional: regional wine, similar to Vin de Pays. • Vinho de Mesa: bottom level, table wine. Two further terms are used to indicate quality, Reserva when stated on the label, indicates that the wine has come from a single vintage and have passed a tasting panel plus if it a DOC grade, it must have a high percentage of natural alcohol than the minimum decreed by law for this DOC wine. Garrafeira indicates the wines ageing which is traditionally two years in cask and one in bottle for reds and six months equally in cask and bottle for white wines.
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World 4.20 Portugal(continued) Major regions and wines of Portugal Northern Portugal’s major wines • Vinho Verde DOC (white: Loureiro, Paderna, Alvarinho): the vines here grow up trees and on pergolas around the little fields, this height keeps the grapes cool and helps to keep their fresh acidity. • Douro DOC (reds: Tinta Roriz, Touriga Nacional, Touriga Franca, Tinta Cao, Tinta Barroca). The white wines although based on Port varieties and Sauvignon, Gewurtztraminer which are planted at the labour intensive higher altitudes. • Dao DOC (reds: Jean, Touriga Nacional, Tinta Roriz): lying south of the Douro and 80 kilometres inland Dao has long been associated with solid reds, vineyards lie 200 to 400 metres above sea level on a plateau with granite soil. • Bairrada DOC (red: Baga): This DOC in central Portugal the region’s white grape, Maria Gomes, is fairly neutral, but leavened and made aromatic by the highly acidic excellent Bical grape. Most of this wine is made sparkling, these wines display fresh exotic flavours. Southern Portugal’s major wines • Ribatejo DOC (white: Fernao Pires, reds: Castelao Frances plus international varieties): this new DO includes the majority of the vineyards in the alluvial Tagus river plains. • Alemtejo DOC (reds: Trincadeira, Aragonez, white: Roupeiro and Antao Vaz, Arinto ): this area is the world’s most important source of cork, soils are loam, mixed with granite and schist. Trincadeira the quality grape here makes dark plumy wines with hints of coffee which when aged in oak develop quite well. Aragonez is useful for blending purposes. The white wines made from Roupeiro and Antao Vaz are full-bodied and honeyed with low-acidity, the Arinto grape gives these wines some much needed aromatic flavours.
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World 4.21 Romania Romania This country is geographically spilt by the L shaped Carpathian Mountains, which occupy almost half of the country. The most widely known wines come from the vineyards of Dealul Mare, which lie on the south-facing slopes of the Carpathian foothills, these red wines are made from Pinot Noir, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon and local varieties.The area of Murfatlar with its limestone soils also produce quality white wines from Chardonnay and Pinot Gris and soft reds from Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon. Most Romanian wines are sold as varietals. The Romanian wine grading hierarchy is as follows in decreasing order; • Vinuri de Calitate Superioara cu Denumire de Origine Controlata (VDOC): top level, indicates superior quality wine from a controlled appellation of origin • Vinuri de Calitate Superioara (VS): indicates superior quality wine • Vin de Masa: table wine, bottom level.
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World 4.22 South Africa [ Wine map of South Africa ]
Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World 4.22 South Africa • Winegrowing in South Africa is mainly cooperative-based. Nearly 5,000 grape farmers farm over 250,000 acres (100,000 hectares). All the best grape varieties are grown near the sea, the inland is too hot • the main areas for good wines are Constantia / Durbanville / Stellanbosch outside these areas its mainly sherry type wines • South Africa was the first country to invent night harvesting, two thirds of the grape varieties planted here are Chenin Blanc called locally ‘Steen’ (tastes lively), the climate is Mediterranean in character, the cold Benguela ocean cool currents extents inland. South Africa wine laws • Dating back to 1973, South African Government where eager for international acceptance, when they introduced and elaborate system of control for Wines of Origin. A Certification of Seal on each bottle is awarded only after tasting by an independent panel; this guarantees the accuracy of the information on the label. The other important label information includes; • Vintage year display: this indicates that 75 per cent of the wine has come from the this year • Cultivar (stated variety of grapes used): this indicates that 75 per cent of the total must comprise of this variety • Stated variety EU difference: in the EU 85 per cent of the total must comprise of this variety with 100 per cent produced in the stated production area. The South African wine legislation order is as follows • Region (5): these are large, the problem with the wine regions of South Africa lies in the fact that boundaries are not rigid enough • Districts (16): such as Stellenbosch and Paarl • Wards (almost 50): these are groups of estates such as Constantia and Franschock, they are grouped into the districts listed above • Estate: these are the smallest production areas recognised in the wine laws they consists of co-operative cellars, estate wineries and small independent merchants. South Africa Grape varieties and Principal regions • Cabernet Sauvignon: Stellenbosch • Chardonnay: coastal area and Walker Bay • Sauvignon Blanc: Constantia, coastal areas • Chenin Blanc (Steen): coastal areas • Pinotage (Pinot Noir and Cinsault): coastal areas • Merlot: mainly grown for varietal wines, creates very dark plumy wines • Muscat of Alexandria (Hanepoot)