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Unit 10: Dairy. Chapters 27 & 28 & 5. Unit 10: Dairy. Unit 10 objectives: Understanding of various breeds of dairy cattle Genetic progress and selection Knowledge of nutritional concerns Understanding of operations, facilities, and waste management Disease pressures. Unit 10: Dairy.

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unit 10 dairy

Unit 10: Dairy

Chapters 27 & 28 & 5

unit 10 dairy1
Unit 10: Dairy
  • Unit 10 objectives:
    • Understanding of various breeds of dairy cattle
    • Genetic progress and selection
    • Knowledge of nutritional concerns
    • Understanding of operations, facilities, and waste management
    • Disease pressures
unit 10 dairy3
Unit 10: Dairy
  • Dairy Type
    • Used to evaluate dairy cattle
      • Stature, angularity, long/lean neck, etc.
    • Good dairy type often leads to good milk production
      • But, not always
    • Dairy Cow Unified Scorecard & Linear Classification Scoring System
      • Evaluates cows on basis of type
      • Aids in selection of superior individuals
unit 10 dairy4
Unit 10: Dairy
  • Cows/bulls are rated in each of the following categories
    • General appearance
    • Dairy character
    • Body capacity
    • Mammary system
  • Final score is added up
    • Excellent (EX): 90-100
    • Very Good (VG): 85-89
    • Good Plus (G+): 80-84
    • Good (G): 75-79
    • Fair (F): 65-74
    • Poor (P): 50-64
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Unit 10: Dairy
      • Classification score can be used in calculating the Predicted Transmitting Ability for Type (PTAT)
        • Aids in the selection process
        • Can be a sales tool
  • Improving Milk Production
    • Milk production has changed greatly through time
      • 1940 23.7m cows avg. 4622lbs./c/yr
      • 2001 9.1m cows avg. 18139lbs./c/yr
unit 10 dairy6
Unit 10: Dairy
  • Selection of Dairy Cows
    • Avg. productive life is short (3-4 yrs.)
      • Many culled due to:
        • Reproductive failure
        • Low milk yield
        • Udder breakdown
        • Poor feet/legs
        • Mastitis
    • Heifers should be chosen from families that are superior in these categories
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Unit 10: Dairy
  • Records are essential
    • National Cooperative Dairy Herd Improvement Program
      • Industry-wide production-testing and record-keeping program
      • Aka DHI
      • Facilitates the creation of a national production database
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Unit 10: Dairy
  • Options for DHI
    • Supervised test-technician weighs and samples milk for all cows in a 24 hr. period
    • Partially supervised-samples are taken alternately a.m. or p.m. by a technician and another person
    • Owner sampler-production data recorded by someone other than a technician
    • Supervised electronic test-data collected electronically and certified by a technician
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Unit 10: Dairy
      • DHI records are standardized to lactation length, 2x milking, and mature age
        • 305 ME
        • Increases accuracy of comparison
  • Breeding Dairy Cattle
    • Extremely important
    • May be the most challenging aspect of managing dairy operations
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Unit 10: Dairy
  • Visual detection of estrus
    • Restlessness
    • Enlarged vulva
    • Drop in milk production (temporary)
    • Permit other cows to mount
  • Majority of cattle are bred AI
    • High quality semen $25-150/unit
    • Lower quality semen $5-20/unit
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Unit 10: Dairy
  • Natural service has mostly been unpopular for 3 reasons:
    • Genetic superiority of AI bulls
    • Availability of superior semen through AI
    • Safety
  • Heritabilities for traits are widely varied, but highly accurate
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Unit 10: Dairy
  • Low her. (5-10%)
    • Ketosis, mastitis, cystic ovaries, milk fever
  • Medium her. (25-30%)
    • Yearly milk, protein, solids-not-fat, fat yield
  • Highly her. (>30%)
    • % fat, % prot., solids-not-fat
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Unit 10: Dairy
  • Inherited abnormalities
    • Short bones, rectal-vaginal constriction, dumps, fused teats, flexed pasterns (feet turn back), hairlessness, syndactylism (one toe)
      • Very rare
      • Often result in death
  • Genetic advancement has been so rapid because of the high use of AI
    • Superior sires may have >100,000 daughters
    • Data on each sire tends to be quite accurate
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Unit 10: Dairy
  • Crossbreeding is not common due to no improvement in milk production
    • Has been some crossbreeding to improve components
    • Ex. No crossbreeding program can equal the Holstein in milk production
  • Sire genetic evaluations are based on data of sire’s daughter compared w/ contemporary herdmates
unit 10 dairy15
Unit 10: Dairy
    • PTA
      • Measured based on superiority/inferiority of his daughters
  • Sire Selection
    • Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP)
      • Method used to calculate PTA
      • Can compare bulls between herds, bulls within herds, and bulls with offspring in many herds
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Unit 10: Dairy
  • PTA’s calculated for:
    • Milk
    • Protein
    • Fat
    • Type
    • Dollars returned
  • Net Merit
    • Can give an economic value to an individual
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Unit 10: Dairy
  • TPI (Type Production Index)
    • Can give one value combining PTA’s of milk, type, udder composite, and fat
    • Helpful in predicting offspring
    • Good sales tool
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Unit 10: Dairy
  • Dairy farm demographics
    • Avg. size 100 milking cows, 30 dry cows, 100 heifers
    • Farm 200-300 ac. Raising most of own forage
    • Market milk through cooperative
    • Sell ~2.2m lbs. milk annually
      • Worth ~$230,000
      • Avg. capital investment ~$500,000
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Unit 10: Dairy
  • Nutrition of Lactating Cows
    • Average 305d lactation production 16,870
    • Many herds avg. >25,000/c/yr
    • Top producing cows >40,000 lbs/c/yr
    • Some may avg. >150 lbs./d
      • >5 lbs. milk fat
      • >4.5 lbs. protein
unit 10 dairy20
Unit 10: Dairy
  • World Record Lactation?
    • Lucy LaFoster Dairy Cleveland, NC
    • 365d
    • 75,275lbs.
  • Great need for energy and total lbs. of feed
    • Ex. Cow producing 40lbs. Milk, 1400 lbs. BW needs 1.25x more energy for lactation than maintenance
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Unit 10: Dairy
  • Dairy cow lactation curves
  • Early stages of lactation
    • DMI and energy intake lag behind milk prod.
    • BW is lost
    • Negative energy balance
  • Mid lactation
    • DMI finally catches up to milk prod. needs
    • BW begins to climb
    • Reproductive performance is much better
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Unit 10: Dairy
  • Late Lactation
    • DMI stays adequate for daily milk prod.
    • Cows gain BW
    • Should be preg.
  • Body Condition Scoring
    • 1-5 scale
    • Much like the beef scale
    • Critical gauge for cow health and nutritional needs
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Unit 10: Dairy
  • Elements of a successful dairy nutrition program
    • Water
    • High quality feedstuffs
    • Adequate length of fiber
    • Optimal level of grain supplement
    • Monitor cud chewing
    • Sufficient bunk space
    • Consistent, high DMI
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Unit 10: Dairy
  • Feed available 24 hrs./d
    • Especially after milking
  • No free-choice ration components
    • This can vary
  • Concentrate on cow comfort
  • Minimize variation in feedstuffs
  • Manage health problems
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Unit 10: Dairy
  • Ideal day in the life of a cow
    • 50% lying down
    • 21% eating
    • 13% milking
    • 4% drinking
    • 6% each social and lockups?
  • What should rations be based on?
    • High-quality forages are cheapest, most effective source of nutrients
unit 10 dairy26
Unit 10: Dairy
  • TMR
    • Total mixed ration
    • All feed components are mixed into one presentation
  • Rations should closely reflect stage of lactation
    • Number of rations on a farm
      • Depends on size
    • Must match the number of effective rations to what is most economical and efficient
unit 10 dairy27
Unit 10: Dairy
    • Lets look at a 500 cow dairy
      • What types of rations would we need?
      • What types of rations would match cow needs?
  • Ration components
    • Forages must be tested regularly
    • Supplements should be formulated to match production goals based on forage quality
      • Energy
      • Protein
      • Min/vit
unit 10 dairy28
Unit 10: Dairy
    • Feed cost typically is ~50% of farm expenses
  • Adjusting for Heat Stress
    • May decrease milk prod. 8-10lbs./c/d
    • Stress begins at 77F
    • Symptoms of heat stress
      • Temp >102.5
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Unit 10: Dairy
  • Excessive panting
    • What else do they lose?
  • Decreased DMI
    • As much as 15%
  • Decreased pregnancy rate
    • Can be 20%
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Unit 10: Dairy
  • Nutrition of Dry Cows
    • Feeding and management heavily influences production in next lactation
    • Drying a cow off
      • Stop milking
      • Treat for mastitis
    • Dry period is 45-60d
      • Much research is being focused on this area
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Unit 10: Dairy
  • Must be separated from milking herd
    • Nutritional differences
    • Not milking
    • Cow comfort
  • Close-up dry cows
    • Last 14-21d of dry period
    • Separate if possible
    • Closely monitor feed intake
    • Can greatly reduce health problems at calving
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Unit 10: Dairy
  • Nutrition of Replacement Heifers
    • Most can do well on high forage and 2-3 lbs. grain
    • Heifers should be large enough to breed at 15 mos.
      • 800 lbs.
      • Weight is more critical than age
      • Heavier heifers will milk more first lactation
      • Why?
unit 10 dairy33
Unit 10: Dairy
    • Recent studies on accelerated heifer growth
      • Reaching breeding wt. at 12-13 mos.
      • What is the economic gain?
  • Calving Operations
    • Must be clean and well-bedded
    • Assistance necessary if cow has not calved after 4-6 hrs. of labor
unit 10 dairy34
Unit 10: Dairy
  • Dip navel in iodine
  • Colostrum feeding
    • Antibodies for disease resistance
    • Should be fed within the first hour
    • 2nd feeding within ~6 hrs.
    • Gut closure
  • Nursing is not permitted usually
    • Remove asap
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Unit 10: Dairy
  • First 4-8 wks.
    • Milk replacer
      • Why not whole milk?
    • Water
    • Dry feed
    • Separate from other calves
    • Wean as soon as they are eating ~3 lbs./d for 3 d
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Unit 10: Dairy
  • Milking and Housing Facilities
    • Free stalls
    • Tie/Stanchion stalls
    • Loose housing
    • Pasture
    • Which is the most efficient?
    • Which is the most comfortable?
    • Which is the most popular?
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Unit 10: Dairy
    • Milking Center/parlor
    • Manure must be done at least daily, usually 2-3x
      • Unless on bedded pack
  • Waste Management
    • Many local, state, and federal regulations
    • Must now have a nutrient management plan
      • Certified Livestock Manager
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Unit 10: Dairy
  • SC study
    • >75% of dairies overfeeding P
  • New NRC has decreased the recommended P feeding rate
  • Nutrient Management Plan
    • Site information
      • Name, contact info., emergency info.
    • Production data
      • No. animals, amount of waste
unit 10 dairy39
Unit 10: Dairy
  • Permit information
  • Manure application records
    • Date, amount, no. acres, method, applicator, wind speed/direction, temp, soil conditions, sky conditions
  • Test results
    • Soil tests
    • Nutrient tests
  • Dead stock disposal plan
unit 10 dairy40
Unit 10: Dairy
  • Milking Operations
    • Concrete platform raised ~30”
    • Speeds milking, reduces labor, easier to operate
    • Milking procedure
      • Clean
      • Forestrip
      • Attach unit within 1 min.
unit 10 dairy41
Unit 10: Dairy
    • Dip in iodine solution
    • Manual removal of unit, or by automatic takeoff
      • Automatic takeoffs are stimulated due to milk flow rate
      • Prolonged exposure to vacuum will damage the teat end
  • Equipment must be sanitary
    • High milk quality
    • Prevent disease problems
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Unit 10: Dairy
  • Regular milking schedule
    • 2X
    • 3X
    • 4X
    • combinations
unit 10 dairy43
Unit 10: Dairy
  • Controlling diseases
    • Similar diseases in dairy and beef cattle
    • More stringent specifications for milk though
    • Bang’s Disease (Brucellosis)
      • Reduces fertility
      • Transmitted sexually, so risk is not high anymore
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Unit 10: Dairy
  • Mastitis
    • Inflammation of the mammary gland
    • Costs the dairy industry >$1.5b/yr.
      • ~$200/cow/yr.
    • Can be hard to detect early
      • Somatic Cell Count
      • CMT
    • Clinical mastitis is easily detected
      • White chunks
      • Watery/bloody milk
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Unit 10: Dairy
  • Under can be swollen, red, and hard
  • Cow may be febrile
  • Two types of mastitis
    • Contagious
      • Can be passed from cow to cow
      • Organisms must live in milk
      • Prevention by clean milking systems, clean hands, gloves, proper milking procedure
      • Not easily eradicated
    • Environmental
      • Organisms are picked up from the environment
      • Caused by unsanitary conditions
      • Readily responds to treatment
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Unit 10: Dairy
      • Cows w/ mastitis have a high cull rate
        • 10 more days to first service, .5 more services/conception, 25 more days open
      • Various treatment options
      • Milk must be withheld according to label
  • Costs and Returns
    • Large farms not necessarily better
      • Economics of scale don’t always work out
unit 10 dairy47
Unit 10: Dairy
  • Performance should be compared against industry benchmarks
    • 4.5 turns/hr in the milking parlor
    • Labor cost/cwt milk
    • DIM
    • Heat detection rate
    • SCC
    • Etc.
unit 10 dairy48
Unit 10: Dairy
  • Milk production
    • Dairy cows produce >90% of world’s milk supply
      • Goats, buffalo, sheep, yaks, camel
    • U.S. by far the leading producer
    • One cow at an avg. of 18,000 lbs. can provide enough milk for 40 people for a year
      • If you include the amount of milk used for other products
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Unit 10: Dairy
  • Milk Composition
    • 88% water
    • 8.6% Solids-not-fat
      • Protein, lactose, minerals
    • 3-4% milk fat
    • Milk not legally salable until the 11th milking
      • Also need to test for antibiotics
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Unit 10: Dairy
  • Milk is very dense in nutrients, while not being extremely high in calories
  • Milk fat
    • Taste component of milk
    • Cheese yield
  • Carbohydrates
    • Lactose (~4.8%)
    • >1/2 of SNF
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Unit 10: Dairy
  • Proteins
    • ~3.3% protein
    • 38% of SNF
    • Casein and Whey are the two main milk proteins
  • Vitamins
    • A, B, C, and D are available in milk
  • Minerals
    • Good sources of Ca, P, and Zn
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Unit 10: Dairy
  • Milk Products in the U.S.
    • Fluid milk
      • >92% of milk sold is Grade A milk
      • Homogenized to prevent separation of milk fat
      • <4% milk fat
      • Pasteurization kills disease-causing pathogens
    • Cream
      • >18% milk fat
      • Coffee creamer, whipping cream
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Unit 10: Dairy
  • Butter
    • >80% milk fat
    • Is one of the oldest forms of preserving milk
  • Cheese
    • >400 different kinds of cheese
    • Soft, semisoft, hard, very hard
      • Based on moisture content
      • Cottage cheese (80%) to Romano (32%)
    • Made by coagulation and curdling
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Unit 10: Dairy
    • 100 lbs. milk will produce 8-16 lbs. of cheese
  • Ice Cream
    • Many different forms
    • Ice cream, custard, French ice cream, Ice milk, frozen yogurt, sherbet
      • Custards have egg yolks >1.4% by wt. added
      • Ice milk-less fat, more sugar (soft serves)
      • Yogurt-less fat, less sugar, more acid
      • Sherbet-low in milk fat and solids, higher sugar
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Unit 10: Dairy
  • Eggnog
    • Contains egg yolks, egg whites
    • >6% milk fat, 8.25% SNF