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China’s Nationalities Policy in light of Austrian Marxists Karl Renner and Otto Bauer Zhiyuan Cui Tsinghua University email@example.com
Otto Bauer 1881-1938
Karl Renner (December 14, 1870 - December 31, 1950)
Freud’s “Dora”: Otto Bauer’s Sister The case studyof "Dora" is both famous and infamous, because itestablished Freud's theories about lesbians and female hysterics, without taking into account that 'transference' works both ways. The "real" Dora, Ida Bauer, was born in Vienna on November 1st 1882, of Bohemian Jewish ancestry. Her father, Philip, was awealthy manufacturer, who was treated for syphilis by Freud six years before he brought his daughter to be treated. Ida's father died of tuberculosis in 1913; her mother, Kathe, died in 1912 of the same disease. Herbrother Otto was one of the leaders of the Austrian Socialist Party, and died in 1938. Despite Freud's conclusion that the young "Dora" (aged 14) had rejected a middle-aged man's seductive advances because shewas a lesbian, she married in 1903. She fled from Vienna to France during World War 2, and then emigrated to the U.S. Her husband, acomposer, died in 1932. She died in New York, in 1945, of colonic cancer. She was survived by one son, a renowned musician.
Austro-Hungarian Empire • 1867 Creation of Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy • 1897 Czech language granted equality with German in Bohemia; German opposition leads to resignation of Count Badeni • 1898 Bohemia divided into Czech, German and mixed districts • 1908 Austrian annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina • 1914 28 June: assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian throne, sets in train the events leading to the First World War • 1919 The Peace Conference at Versailles divides the Habsburg emperor into a series of ‘nation-states’
Otto Bauer “In Bohemia, in 1990, 98,548 Germans – that is, 42.2 out of thousand Germans – lived in parishes with a Czech majority, and 84,598 Czechs – that is, 21.5 per thousand – lived in parishes with a German majority.” -- The Question of Nationlities and Social Democracy, p. 267
Otto Bauer “ … the territorial principle alone cannot fulfill the national needs of the Slovenes. In four districts of Carinthia the Slovenes form strong minorities that comprise 20 to 40 percent of the population. … With a better system of district division, several of these Slovene parishes could be amalgamated with other purely Slovene administrative regions, but this is certainly not possible everywhere, and here too the boundaries of the administrative districts could not correspond everywhere with linguistic boundaries.” – p.269
Two Contributions of Renner and Bauer (1) Non-Territorial Cultural Autonomy (2) The Personality Principle (nations as legal persons) “… the aim of the personality principle is to constitute the nation not as a territorial corporation, but as an association of persons. … two or more nations would construct their own national administrative bodies within the one city, erect national educational institutions side by side, but undisturbed by one another – in exactly the same way as Catholics, Protestants, and Jews independently attend to their religious affairs side by side within the one city.”
Lenin: “why should the most backward of the multinational countries be taken as the model?” Stalin: “Bauer’s point of view, which identifies a nation with its national character, divorces the nation from its soil, and converts it into an invisible, self-contained force” (Stalin, 1913)
Zhou Enlai:大杂居,小聚居 “One basic policy towards the nationalities adopted after the founding of New China has been to institute national regional autonomy. China has not adopted a system of national autonomous republics, because its many nationalities developed in regions interlocking with each other. In the historical process, a number of nationalities have come to live in a conglomeration, with relatively few, or even very few examples of a nationality living in a compact community by itself. This situation allows for national co-operation and national regional autonomy. National regional autonomy properly combines national and regional autonomy, economic and political factors. This system is new, a creation hitherto unknown in history.”
Zhou Enlai(和奥地利马克思主义民族理论不谋而合) “The Hans for a long time dominated the Chinese Central Plains, making incursions into regions inhabitd by fraternal nationalities; but there were also quite a few fraternal nationalities who came to the interior and dominated the Central Plains. … We often say that Xinjiang is a place where minority people are concentrated, but Xinjiang has 13 nationalities, not one. Tibet is comparatively unmixed, but this is only in the area under the jurisdiction of the Preparatory Committee for the Tibet Autonomous Region, whereas in other places the Tibetans also live among other nationalities.”
The Puzzle “I have often stated clearly and publicly that I am not asking for the independence of Tibet … I am aware of the possibility that, in a changing world, a smaller community or nation could benefit by being associating with a larger state … What is essential is that the Tibetans have genuine self-rule.” -- Dalai Lama “My Land and My People”, p.vii
Two Tibets “To understand this situation it is vital to keep in mind that there are two Tibets. When Beijing speaks of Tibet, it is referring to the TAR; when the Dalai Lama speaks of Tibet, he speaks for an area more than three times the size of the TAR in which Tibetans live (Kham and Amdo). The historical reality is that the Dalai Lamas have not ruled these outer areas since the mid-eighteenth century, and during the Simla Conference of 1913, the thirteenth Dalai Lama was even willing to sign away rights to them.” -- A. Tom Grunfeld, “The Making of Modern Tibet”, p.245
The Scope of “The Greater Tibet” Dalai Lama’s Greater Tibet includes not only Tibet Autonomous Region, 8 Tibet Autonomous Prefectures (AP), 1 Mongol/Tibet AP, 1 Tibet/Qiang AP, and 2 Tibet Autonomous Counties (AC), but also large areas beyond. It includes whole Qinghai Province, half of Sichuan Province, about half of Gansu Province, ¼ of Yunnan Province, and south part of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. It comprises more than ¼ of China’s territory. It includes the following Non-Tibet areas: Qinghai’s Xining and Haidong, Menyuan Hui （海北门源回族）AC, Hualong Hui （海东化隆回族）AC, Huzhu Tu （海东互助土族）AC, Xunhua Sala （海东循化撒拉族）AC, Henan Mongol (黄南河南蒙古族）AC, Haixi Mongol/Hasake AP; Yunnan’s Nujiang Lisu (怒江傈僳族）AP, Yulong Naixi (玉龙纳西族） AC, Gongshan Dulong/Nu （贡山独龙族怒族）AP, Ninglang Yi （宁蒗 彝族）AP, north part of Dali Bai （大理白族）AP, north part of Chuxiong Yi （楚雄彝族）AP; Sichuan’s Aba Tibet/Qiang （藏族羌族）AP, west part of Liangshan Yi AP; Gansu’s Lingxia Hui （临夏回族）AP, Sunan Yugu （张掖市肃南裕固族）AC, Jishishan Baoan/Dongxiang/Sala （临夏积石山保安族东乡族撒拉族）AC, Akesai Hasake （酒泉市阿克塞哈萨克族）AC, Subei Mongol （酒泉市肃北蒙古族）AC, Hexi Corridor, Gannan several counties; Xinjiang’s south part.
Roussillon, in France, is historically Catalan by culture, was formerly united with it politically and is seen by Catalan nationalists as part of their homeland.
Qinghai Province (2007) Population: 5,516,000 54 Nationalities Non-Han 42.8% Hainan TAP: 413,400 (Tibetan 57%) Haibei TAP: 271,800 (Tibetan 20%) Huangnan TAP: 210,000 (Tibetan 66%) Yushu TAP: 283,100 (Tibetan 95%) Guoluo TAP: 130,000 (Tibetan Haixi MTAP: 410,000 (Tibetan 9%)
Sichuan (2006) Population 87,225,224 56 Nationalities Ganzi TAP Pop. 930,500 Tibetan 79% Aba TQAP (2004) Pop. 848,174 Qiang & Tibetan 60% Muli TA County Under Liangshan Yizu Autonomous Prefecture Pop. 120,000 Tibetan 30%
Yunnan Province 44,150,000 (2004) Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture Pop. 370,000 (2006) Tibetan 33%
Gansu Province: Population (2007) 26,171,600 55 Nationalities Han 91% Gannan TAP: Population 677,900 24 Nationalities Tibetan 53% Tianzhu TA County Under Wuwei Shi Pop. 210,000 (2004) Tibetan
“in the eastern parts of our country the Chinese now greatly outnumber Tibetans. For example, in Qinghai province, which today comprises Amdo, where I was born, there are 2.5 million Chinese and only 750,000 Tibetans” -- Dalai Lama, “Freedom in Exile”, p.250 （达赖出生在西宁附近湟中县当采乡祁家川）
“This population transfer is not new. China has systematically applied it to other areas. Not long ago, the Manchus were a distinct race with their own culture and tradition. Today, only two to three millions Manchurians are left in Manchuria, where 75 millions Chinese have settled.” -- Dalai Lama, “Freedom in Exile”, p.251
US Congressional Declaration: China’s illegal control of Tibet, 1991 “1. Tibet, including those areas incorporated into the Chinese provinces of Sichuan, Yunnan, Gabsu, and Qinghai, is an occupied country under the established principles of international law. … 3. Tibet has maintained throughout its history a distinctive and sovereign national, cultural, and religious identity separate from that of China and, except during periods of illegal Chinese occupation, has maintained a separate and sovereign political and territorial identity.”
“The exile government was deeply committed to the re-creation of a ‘Greater’ Tibet, which would include in one administrative unite both political and ethnographic Tibet.” • “Such had been the goal of previous Tibetan governments (as at the Simla talks in 1913-1914) and it was deeply cherished, but it was especially important in exile because of the large numbers of Tibetan refugees from those ethnic areas.” • “However, the goal of a Greater Tibet was not at all politically realistic. Tibet had not ruled most of these areas for a century or more, and it is difficult to see how China could have handed over large areas in Sichuan, Qinghai, Gansu, and Yunnan, many of which included Chinese and Chinese Muslim (Hui) populations that had migrated there well before the Communists came to power in 1949.” ---- M. Goldstein “The Snow Lion and the Dragon”, p.71
达赖喇嘛本人并不反暴力 Note 24. Actually, in a recent TV interview, the Dalai Lama responded to a question about Buddhism and violence with the intriguing response that “intentions” are more important than actions, and that if acts, even violent ones, are carried out with pure intentions, they would not be evil. ---- M. Goldstein “The Snow Lion and the Dragon”, p.141