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Genetic Disorders. Nondisjunction: If a pair of sex chromosomes fails to separate during the formation of an egg (or sperm), this is referred to as nondisjunction [cell has more or less chromosomes than it needs]. Turner Syndrome

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genetic disorders

Genetic Disorders

Nondisjunction: If a pair of sex chromosomes fails to separate during the formation of an egg (or sperm), this is referred to as nondisjunction [cell has more or less chromosomes than it needs]

slide2

Turner Syndrome

Normally females inherit one X chromosome from their mother and one X from their father. Females with Turner Syndrome are missing one of their X chromosomes.

    • Webbed features, short, could be mentally slow, sterile

http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/disorders/whataregd/turner/index.html

slide3

Klinefelter Syndrome

Affects only males. The have an extra X chromosome.

      • Infertile, learning impaired, breast development
slide4

Super Woman XXX

    • During cell division nondisjunction occurs causing the reproductive cells to have additional chromosomes.
        • No unusual physical problems, tall, clumsy
  • Super Man XYY
    • During cell division nondisjunction causes sperm cells to have an extra copy of the Y chromosome
        • Tall, super acne, language disorders, many criminals have XYY
slide5

Down Syndrome

Is a developmental disorder caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21

    • Impaired of cognitive ability/physical growth

http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/disorders/whataregd/down/index.html

slide6

Pedigree Chart- shows the occurrence and appearance (phenotype) of a particular gene from one generation to the next.

    • Squares represent males
    • Circles represent females
    • If shape colored in =presence of trait
    • If shape not colored in =trait not present
slide7

Genetic Engineering- direct human manipulation of an organism’s genome using modern DNA technology.

    • Producing insulin, human growth hormones, and vaccines
    • Genetically modified food- crops that provide protection from insects and resistance to herbicides, also have cold or drought tolerance and an increased nutritional value
slide8

Gel Electrophoresis

Jello + electricity + DNA sample =separated DNA fingerprint

    • Fighting crime
    • Paternity tests
  • Gene Therapy
    • Scientists can replace bad sections of DNA to try to cure disease
  • Cloning
    • Creating new cells from an original cell
  • Transgenic Organisms
    • Mixing DNA from 2 organisms