I. Revolution in Science: Discovering the Laws of Nature - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
I. Revolution in Science: Discovering the Laws of Nature PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
I. Revolution in Science: Discovering the Laws of Nature

play fullscreen
1 / 12
I. Revolution in Science: Discovering the Laws of Nature
145 Views
Download Presentation
dacian
Download Presentation

I. Revolution in Science: Discovering the Laws of Nature

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. I. Revolution in Science: Discovering the Laws of Nature II. The Age of Reason and the Ancien Régime III. The Failure of Monarchical Reform IV. The French Revolution: The Domestic Phase, 1789–1799 V. The French Revolution: The Napoleonic Phase, 1799–1815

  2. I. Revolution in Science: Discovering the Laws of Nature • A. Astronomy • Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543) • On the Revolutions of Heavenly Bodies, 1543 • Heliocentric Theory (Aristarchus) • Tycho Brahe (1546–1601) • Sophia, sister • Observations • Johannes Kepler (1571–1630) • Elliptical orbits • Laws of planetary motion • Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) • Telescope

  3. I. Revolution in Science: Discovering the Laws of Nature • B. The Scientific Method • René Descartes (1596–1650) • Discourse on Method, 1627 • Isaac Newton (1642–1727) and • Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz (1646–1716) • Differential calculus • Francis Bacon (1561–1626) • Novum Organum, 1626 • Various • Thermometer, 1597 • Barometer, 1644 • Air pump, 1650 • Pendulum clock, 1657 • C. The Newtonian Universe • 1666, gravitation • 1667, Principia • D. The Popularity of Science • Learned Societies • Royal Society of London, 1662 • French Academy of Science, 1664

  4. II. The Age of Reason and the Ancien Régime John Locke • 1690, Second Treatise on Civil Government • A. The Age of Reason: English and Dutch Phases Glorious Revolution > early, conservative Enlightenment • Newton • Masons • Whigs • Later, more radical phase • Pierre Bayle (1647–1706) • John Toland (1670–1772) • Baruch Spinoza (1632–1677) • pantheism Huguenots • Deism • B. French Philosophes and the Radical Enlightenment • PhilosophesSalonières • Marquise de Châtelet (1706–1749) • Madame de Tencin • son, Jean d’Alembert • translated Newton • Baron de Montesquieu (1688–1755) • Voltaire (François-Marie Arouet) • 1721, Persian Letters • 1748, The Spirit of the Laws • Encyclopédie • Denis Diderot (1713–1784) • Jean d’Alembert (1717–1783) • Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712–1778) • 1762, The Social Contract

  5. II. The Age of Reason and the Ancien Régime • C. Enlightenment Thought and Women • Mary Astell (1666–1731) • Serious Proposal to the Ladies, 1694 • Mary Montague (1689–1762) • Catherine Macaulay (1731–1791) • Mary Wollstonecraft (1759–1797) • Salonières • Madame de Puisseux (1720–1798) • Madame Gaçon-Dufour (1753–1835) • Journal des Dames, 1761–1775 • Marquis de Condorcet (1743–1794) • Letter of a Bourgeois of New Haven, 1787

  6. E. The Political Critique of the Old Regime • Locke, 1690, Essay Concerning Human Understanding • F. New Artistic Movements • Bernini, The Ecstacy of St. Teresa • Caravaggio, The Beheading of St. John the Baptist • Architecture • Rococo • from Baroque • Neoclassicism • reaction • II. The Age of Reason and the Ancien Régime • D. The Economic Critique • Physiocrats • François Quesnay (1694–1774) • v. Colbert • Robert Turgot (1720–1781) • Adam Smith (1723–1790) • 1776, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations • Laissez-faire

  7. III. The Failure of Monarchical Reform • A. Frederick II of Prussia “the Great” • legal reforms • B. Catherine II of Russia • Correspondence with Voltaire • national schools • C. Joseph II (1780–1790)

  8. IV. The French Revolution: The Domestic Phase, 1789–1799 • A. Versailles and the Estates-General (May–June 1789) • Marie Antoinette (1755–1793) • Debt—$6 billion • Poor harvests, 1788 > famine • 1789—Estates-General • Cahiers de Doleance • B. Suffering and Explosion (July–August 1789) • July 14, Bastille • August 4—Great Fear • end of Ancien Régime C. Moderate Phase of the Revolution (August 1789–September 1791) • Assembly • Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen • Constitution of 1791

  9. E. The Jacobin Republic • 1793, Committee of Public Safety • Constitution • 1793–1794—Reign of Terror • F. Conservative Counter-Revolution • 1794—Robespierre executed • end of Terror • Directory, 1795–1799 • IV. The French Revolution: 1789–1799 • D. Drift Towards Radicalism (September 1791–June 1793) • Legislative Assembly, October 1791 • Vendée • Girondins, Jacobins • Francis II (1768–1835), Holy Roman Emperor • 1792—war • Jacobins • against war • Jacques Danton (1759–1794) • Maximilien Robespierre (1758–1794) • September Massacres • Radicals • Danton, Robespierre, Jean-Paul Marat (1743–1793) • 1793—Louis XVI executed • First Coalition, 1793 • Britain, Austria, Prussia, Spain, Netherlands, Sardinia

  10. V. The French Revolution: The Napoleonic Phase, 1799–1815 • A. Napoleon the Corsican • Napoleon Bonaparte • (1769–1821) • Revolt against Directory, 1795 • Napoleon in command • 1796—Commander v. Austria • 1797—Treaty of Campo Formio • Second Coalition • Russia, Britain • 1799—Consulate • replaces Directory • Napoleon, First Consul

  11. V. The French Revolution: The Napoleonic Phase, 1799–1815 • B. New Foundations • Napoleonic Code • C. Napoleon as Military Leader • Third Coalition • Britain, Russia, Austria, Sweden • 1805, Nelson’s victory at Trafalgar • French victories at Ulm, Austerlitz • Continental System • 1807, defeat of Russia • D. Napoleon’s Revolution in Europe • Peninsular War • > Latin American uprisings

  12. V. The French Revolution: 1799–1815 • E. Napoleon’s Downfall • Russian Campaign • > War of Liberation (1810–1814) • Russia, Britain, Prussia, Austria • Duke of Wellington • 1813—Battle of Nations, Leipzig • 1814—Napoleon abdicates • > Elba • Louis XVIII • 1815—return to France • Waterloo • Wellington • Gebhard von Blücher (1749–1819)