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Energy Seminar. Emerson Process Management June 22/23, 2010. Process Control Fundamentals. Kurt Schmelzer & Tom Marsh Novaspect, Inc. Process Control Applies…. Purchased Steam. Process Steam Drives. Export Steam. Central Steam / Water Production. Purchased Fuel.

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energy seminar

Energy Seminar

Emerson Process Management

June 22/23, 2010

process control fundamentals

Process Control Fundamentals

Kurt Schmelzer & Tom Marsh

Novaspect, Inc.

process control applies
Process Control Applies…

PurchasedSteam

ProcessSteamDrives

ExportSteam

Central

Steam / Water Production

PurchasedFuel

ProcessHeating/Cooling

ProcessSteamGenerated

Water

Raw Material as Fuel

ProcessFiredEquipment

ExportFuel

ProcessDirect FuelUsage

ProcessMisc. Electric / Air Usage

Central Power / Air Production

ExportPower

Utility Plant

PurchasedPower

ProcessElectricDrives

Site Processes

causes of variability
Causes of Variability

Loops

The Cause

Loops

The Cause

Design

Design

20%

Design

Tuning

Tuning

30%

Increases

Variability

Increases Variability

Control Valve

Performance

Control Valve Performance

30%

As Many As 80% of Loops Actually Increase Variability

20%

Source: Entech---Results from audits of over 5000 loops in Pulp & Paper Mills

slide5

Main Steam Temperature Control

Decreased Variability = Increased Profit

Upper Limit

  • NPHR
  • = 0.75%
  • Reduction

Set Point

SUPERHEAT TEMP.

Increased Temp. Set Point

Reduced Process Variability

Provides the Opportunity for

Setpoint Change

= ( NPHR) X Fuel cost X KW-HR generated/year = Savings

= .75% x 11,000 BTU/KW-HR X $2.22/MM BTU X 320,000 KW X 8760 hours / year =

$516,517 per operating year !!

the energy improvement process
The Energy Improvement Process

Begin

Survey and Measure

Minimal

Capital

Cost

Implement Site Management

Fix Devices and Loops

Optimize Unit Processes

Address Equipment

practical process control
Practical Process Control
  • Basics of Process Control
  • Keys for Boiler Control
  • Keys for Chiller Control
basics
Measurements

Final Control Elements

Controller

Control Strategy

Correct for application

Correct for application

Set-up and Tuning

Designed to the system

Basics
basic controls can save energy
Basic Controls Can Save Energy

Upper Limit

Set Point

Increased Set Point

Lower Limit

  • What is the key to capturing the performance of measurements and final control elements

STRATEGY&TUNING

boiler control measurements keys
Boiler Control Measurements Keys
  • Drum Level
    • Accuracy, and Reliability
  • Fuel Flow
    • Repeatability, and Reliability
  • Air Flow
    • Repeatability, and Reliability
  • Flue Gas Oxygen
    • Accuracy, and Reliability
  • Steam Flow
    • Accuracy, and Reliability
  • Feedwater Flow
    • Accuracy, and Reliability
boiler control controller keys
Boiler Control Controller Keys
  • Controller/s capable of handling the highly interactive boiler process
    • Fast enough to unlock the performance for the measurements and final control elements.

Typical 0.5 Sec.

    • Digital Resolution equal to the field instrumentation

32 Bit floating point required

energy saving control strategies
Energy Saving Control Strategies

Stack O2 Trim

Ensures you maximize

energy savings

boiler control tuning
Boiler Control Tuning
  • Open Loop Bump Testing
    • Air & Fuel are Self Regulating Processes
      • Maximize Speed of Response
      • Improve performance by coordinating response to maintain fuel/air ratio through load changes
      • Optimize to lower O2 as control improves.
        • Understand what your O2 reading Represents.
        • Determine CO Limits
    • Feedwater Flow is a Self-regulating Process
      • Maximize Response as this is the inner loop
    • Drum Level is an Integrating Process
      • Average of Several Slopes to get best response.
chiller control measurement keys
Chiller Control Measurement Keys

Temperature

Accuracy, and Reliability

Temperature

Accuracy, and Reliability

Temperature

Accuracy, and Reliability

Water Flow

Accuracy, and Reliability

key final control elements
Key Final Control Elements

Compressor Guide Vane Actuator

Child Water Flow

Refrigerant Level

Reduce Varability

temperature control tuning
Temperature Control Tuning
  • Open Loop Bump Testing
    • Self Regulating Process or Near Integrating Process
      • Ensure self regulating process has reached final temperature
      • Improve performance by treating as integrating process
  • Dead Time
    • Chiller on-board loops should have relative short dead-time
    • System loops may have significant dead-time
      • Dead time approach – PID, Model Predictive, Smith Predictor
  • Sequencing
    • Control of the Various Redundant Systems
optimization is a building process
Optimization is a Building Process

Sustainable Business Results Are at Risk

if a Holistic Approach is Not Utilized

SOP

Tuning

Optimize Unit

Process

Math and Model

Adjustment

Control Platform and

Single-Knob Automatic Regulatory

Fix Devices

and Loops

Process

Measurement

Process

Actuation

Address

Equipment

Process Issue

Resolution / Mitigation

single knob control
Single Knob - Control
  • Attention to fundamental are the keys.
  • Robust fundamental controls are the foundation to energy management solutions.
the takeaway
The Takeaway

Ineffective controller tuning is the biggest single contributor to poor control loop performance and energy waste …stay focused on Loop Tuning!