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How to Use This Presentation

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How to Use This Presentation

## How to Use This Presentation

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1. How to Use This Presentation • To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects select “View” on the menu bar and click on “Slide Show.” • To advance through the presentation, click the right-arrow key or the space bar. • From the resources slide, click on any resource to see a presentation for that resource. • From the Chapter menu screen click on any lesson to go directly to that lesson’s presentation. • You may exit the slide show at any time by pressing the Esc key.

2. Resources Bellringers Chapter Presentation Transparencies Standardized Test Prep Image and Math Focus Bank CNN Videos Visual Concepts

3. The Periodic Table Chapter 12 Table of Contents Section 1 Arranging the Elements Section 2 Grouping the Elements

4. Section1 Arranging the Elements Chapter 12 Bellringer Think of all the ways a deck of cards could be laid out so that the cards form some sort of identifiable pattern. Write down as many patterns as you can in yourscience journal.

5. Section1 Arranging the Elements Chapter 12 Objectives • Describe how Mendeleev arranged elements in the first periodic table. • Explain how elements are arranged in the modern periodic table. • Compare metals, nonmetals, and metalloids based on their properties and on their location in the periodic table. • Describe the difference between a period • and a group.

6. Section1 Arranging the Elements Chapter 12 Discovering a Pattern • In 1869, Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev arranged the elements in order of increasing atomic mass. • Periodic Properties of the ElementsWhen the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic mass, those that had similar properties occurred in a repeating pattern. • These repeating patterns areperiodic,meaning that they happen at regular intervals.

7. Section1 Arranging the Elements Chapter 12 Discovering a Pattern, continued • Predicting Properties of Missing ElementsMendeleev’s arrangement had gaps in its pattern. Mendeleev predicted that elements yet to be found would fill these gaps. He also predicted the properties of the missing elements. • By 1886, all of the gaps had been filled and Mendeleev’s predictions were right.

8. Section1 Arranging the Elements Chapter 12 Changing the Arrangement • A few elements’ properties did not fit in the pattern of Mendeleev’s table. • In 1914, British scientist Henry Moseley found the number of protons—the atomic number—in an atom. • When the elements were arranged by atomic number, they fit the pattern in Mendeleev’s table.

9. Chapter 12 Section1 Arranging the Elements

10. Chapter 12 Section1 Arranging the Elements The Periodic Table and Classes of Elements • Elements are classified as metals, nonmetals, and metalloids, according to their properties. • The number of electrons in the outer energy level of an atom is one characteristic that helps determine which category an element belongs in. • The zigzag line on the periodic table can help you recognize which elements belong in which category.

11. Chapter 12 Section1 Arranging the Elements The Periodic Table and Classes of Elements, continued • Metalsare found to the left of the zigzag line. Atoms of most metals have few electrons in their outer energy level. • Most metals are shiny, ductile, malleable, and are good conductors of electric current and thermal energy.

12. Chapter 12 Section1 Arranging the Elements The Periodic Table and Classes of Elements, continued • Nonmetalsare found to the right of the zigzag line. Atoms of most nonmetals have an almost complete set of electrons in their outer energy level. • Nonmetals are not shiny, ductile, or malleable, and are poor conductors of electric current and thermal energy.

13. Chapter 12 Section1 Arranging the Elements The Periodic Table and Classes of Elements, continued • Metalloidsare the elements that border the zigzag line. Atoms of metalloids have about half of a complete set of electrons in their outer energy level. • Metalloids have some properties of metals and some properties of nonmetals. • Metalloids are also called semiconductors.

14. Chapter 12 Section1 Arranging the Elements Decoding the Periodic Table • Each Element is Identified by a Chemical SymbolEach square on the periodic table includes an element’s name, chemical symbol, atomic number, and atomic mass. • For most elements, the chemical symbol has one or two letters. The newest elements have temporary three-letter symbols.

15. Chapter 12 Section1 Arranging the Elements Decoding the Periodic Table, continued • Rows Are Called PeriodsEach horizontal row of elements is called aperiod.(these elements have similar characteristics)The chemical and physical properties of elements in a row follow a repeating pattern as you move across the period. • Columns Are Called GroupsEach vertical column of elements is called agroup. (these elements have similar characteristics)Elements in the same group often have similar chemical and physical properties.

16. Chapter 12 Section2 Grouping the Elements Bellringer How do you know that a bird is a bird, that a kangaroo is a kangaroo, and that a shark is a shark? What characteristics of each animal help you to tell the animals apart? How can such an analysis of characteristics be applied to elements?

17. Chapter 12 Section2 Grouping the Elements Objectives • Explain why elements in a group often have similar properties. • Describe the properties of the elements in the groups of the periodic table.

18. Chapter 12 Section2 Grouping the Elements Group 1: Alkali Metals • Alkali metals are elements in Group 1 of the periodic table. Alkali metal properties: • group contains metals • 1 electron in the outer level • very reactive • softness, color of silver, shininess, low density

19. Chapter 12 Section2 Grouping the Elements Group 2: Alkaline-Earth Metals • Alkaline-earth metals are elements in Group 2. Alkaline-earth metal properties: • group contains metals • 2 electrons in the outer level • very reactive, but less reactive than alkali metals • color of silver, higher densities than alkali metals

20. Chapter 12 Section2 Grouping the Elements Group 3–12: Transition Metals • Transition metals are inGroups 3–12. Some of the transition metals are shown below.

21. Chapter 12 Section2 Grouping the Elements Group 3–12: Transition Metals, continued • Properties of Transition Metalsvary widely but include: • groups contains metals • 1 or 2 electrons in the outer level • less reactive than alkaline-earth metals • shininess, good conductors of electric current and thermal energy

22. Chapter 12 Section2 Grouping the Elements Group 3–12: Transition Metals, continued • Lanthanides and Actinides Some transition metals from Periods 6 and 7 appear in two rows at the bottom of the periodic table. Elements in the first row are called lanthanides and elements in the second row are called actinides.

23. Chapter 12 Section2 Grouping the Elements Group 13: Boron Group • Aluminum is the most common element from Group 13. Group 13 properties: • group contains one metalloid and four metals • 3 electrons in the outer level • reactive • solids at room temperature

24. Chapter 12 Section2 Grouping the Elements Group 14: Carbon Group • Group 14 properties: • group contains one nonmetal, two metalloids, and two metals • 4 electrons in the outer level • reactivity varies among the elements • solids at room temperature

25. Chapter 12 Section2 Grouping the Elements Group 15: Nitrogen Group • Group 15 properties: • group contains two nonmetals, two metalloids, and one metal • 5 electrons in the outer level • reactivity varies among the elements • solids at room temperature (except for nitrogen, which is a gas)

26. Chapter 12 Section2 Grouping the Elements Group 16: Oxygen Group • Group 16 properties: • group contains three nonmetals, one metalloids, and one metal • 6 electrons in the outer level • reactive • solids at room temperature (except for oxygen, which is a gas)

27. Chapter 12 Section2 Grouping the Elements Group 17: Halogens • Halogensare the elements in Group 17. Group 17 properties: • group contains nonmetals • 7 electrons in the outer level • very reactive • poor conductors of electric current, never in uncombined form in nature

28. Chapter 12 Section2 Grouping the Elements Group 18: Noble Gases • Noble gasesare the elements in Group 18. Group 18 properties: • group contains nonmetals • 8 electrons in the outer level (except helium, which has 2) • unreactive • colorless, odorless gases at room temperature

29. Chapter 12 Section2 Grouping the Elements Hydrogen • The properties of hydrogen do not match the properties of any single group, so hydrogen is set apart. • a nonmetal • 1 electron in the outer level • reactive • colorless, odorless gas at room temperature, low density

30. Chapter 12 Section2 Grouping the Elements Periodic Table Overview Click below to watch the Visual Concept. You may stop the video at any time by pressing the Esc key. Visual Concept

31. Chapter 12 The Periodic Table Concept Map Use the terms below to complete the concept map on the next slide.

32. Chapter 12 The Periodic Table

33. Chapter 12 The Periodic Table

34. End of Chapter 12 Show

36. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter 12 Passage 1Napoleon III (1808–1873) ruled as emperor of France from 1852 to 1870. Napoleon III was the nephew of the famous French military leader and emperor Napoleon I. Early in his reign, Napoleon III was an authoritarian ruler. France’s economy did well under his dictatorial rule, so the French rebuilt cities and built railways. Continued on the next slide

37. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter 12 Passage 1, continuedDuring the 1850s and 1860s, Napoleon III used aluminum dinnerware because aluminum was more valuable than gold. Despite his wealth and French economic prosperity, Napoleon III lost public support and popularity. So, in 1860, he began a series of reforms that allowed more individual freedoms in France.

38. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter 12 1. What is the meaning of the word authoritarian in the passage? Acontrolling people’s thoughts and actions Bwriting books and stories Cbeing an expert on a subject Dbeing very wealthy

39. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter 12 1. What is the meaning of the word authoritarian in the passage? Acontrolling people’s thoughts and actions Bwriting books and stories Cbeing an expert on a subject Dbeing very wealthy

40. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter 12 2. Which of the following statements best describes why Napoleon III probably changed the way he ruled France? FHe was getting old. GHe was unpopular and had lost public support. HHe had built as many railroads as he could. IHe used aluminum dinnerware.

41. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter 12 2. Which of the following statements best describes why Napoleon III probably changed the way he ruled France? FHe was getting old. GHe was unpopular and had lost public support. HHe had built as many railroads as he could. IHe used aluminum dinnerware.

42. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter 12 3. According to the passage, in what year did Napoleon III die? A1808 B1873 C1860 D1852

43. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter 12 3. According to the passage, in what year did Napoleon III die? A1808 B1873 C1860 D1852

44. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter 12 Passage 2Named after architect Buckminster Fuller, buckyballs resemble the geodesic domes that are characteristic of the architect’s work. Excitement over buckyballs began in 1985, when scientists projected light from a laser onto a piece of graphite. In the soot that remained, researchers found a completely new kind of molecule! Continued on the next slide

45. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter 12 Passage 2, continuedBuckyballs are also found in the soot from a candle flame. Some scientists claim to have detected buckyballs in space. In fact, one suggestion is that buckyballs are at the center of the condensing clouds of gas, dust, and debris that form galaxies.

46. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter 12 1. Which of the following statements correctly describes buckyballs? AThey are a kind of dome-shaped building. BThey are shot from lasers. CThey were unknown before 1985. DThey are named for the scientist who discovered them.

47. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter 12 1. Which of the following statements correctly describes buckyballs? AThey are a kind of dome-shaped building. BThey are shot from lasers. CThey were unknown before 1985. DThey are named for the scientist who discovered them.

48. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter 12 2. Based on the passage, which of the following statements is an opinion? FBuckyballs might be in the clouds that form galaxies. GBuckyballs are named after an architect. HScientists found buckyballs in soot. IBuckyballs are a kind of molecule.

49. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter 12 2. Based on the passage, which of the following statements is an opinion? F Buckyballsmight be in the clouds that form galaxies. GBuckyballs are named after an architect. HScientists found buckyballs in soot. IBuckyballs are a kind of molecule.

50. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter 12 3. According to the passage, why were scientists excited? ABuckyballs were found in space. BAn architect created a building that resembled a molecule. CBuckyballs were found to be in condensing clouds of gas that form galaxies. DA new kind of molecule was found.