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  1. Cognitive Overload in Multimedia Learning EDP 504 Tutorial by Andrea Sanyshyn Janine Batchelor Patricia Peres and Peter Vierno Skip Intro Skip Intro

  2. Introduction This tutoring system was designed to give you a quick but thorough description of what cognitive overload is and how it can be avoided. Skip Intro

  3. Introduction By the end of this tutorial we hope to give you the ability to evaluate multimedia learning tools. As teachers we want our students to be engaged and learning yet not over stimulated. Before we get started let's do an activity... Skip Intro

  4. Introduction On the following slides we are going to show you some examples of some webpages. Pretend you are a student using the webpages to gather information for a school project. All we want you to do is answer a question about the webpages. Skip Intro

  5. Introduction Go to this site: http://www.mnh.si.edu/vikings/start.html Once you open the page you need to follow these two steps: 1st: Click on the Viking Voyage option 2nd: Click on the Enhanced Site option This is the page you should be looking at. Now just look over the page. Once you think you are ready click the next button below for your question. Now Skip Intro

  6. Introduction Question:Where does the Viking journey begin and end? Click the next button to see the answer. Skip Intro

  7. Introduction Answer: The journey begins at the Homelands and Ends at the Land of Legend. Were you right? Let’s try one more. Skip Intro

  8. Introduction From the Viking webpage you are on right now, click #7 on the map to go to the Land of Legends. (Here’s the link again if you closed the page: http://www.mnh.si.edu/vikings/start.html ) This is what the page should look like. When you are ready, click the next button for your question. Skip Intro

  9. Introduction Question: What were three ideas about the Vikings that are competing for supremacy? Click the next button for the answer. Skip Intro

  10. Introduction Answer: Any three of the following would be correct: 1. humorous Viking cartoon strips 2. serious genetic studies of Viking descendants 3. historically accurate novels 4. archeological hoaxes Did you get this one right? Skip Intro

  11. Introduction If you thought something like… Oh, there is too much info! Wait! The ship moves!! Why are they asking me these questions? Everything is so confusing! This webpage is a mess! you aren’t the only one. Skip Intro

  12. Introduction The cognitive overload which you are experiencing can happen for two main reasons: 1. Extraneous Factor: the information is not presented well (This factor can be controlled by creators of multimedia resourses.) 2. Intrinsic Factor: the complexity and amount of informational units to hold in working memory to comprehend information Brunken, Plass, & Leutner, 2003 Skip Intro

  13. Introduction You have just experienced how cognitive overload can affect learning. Now we will move onto what cognitive load is and how it can be reduced. We suggest that if this is your first time using this tutoring system to follow the links down the page in order on the next slide. The Mind Cognitive Overload Examples Skip Intro

  14. Home Page Cognitive Load- What is it? What’s the Importance? How the Mind Works Ways to Reduce Overload Let’s Review Glossary Reference List Return to Intro

  15. Cognitive Load- What is it? The definition of cognitive overload in multimedia learning refers to the excessive level of cognitive processing required for learning through the presentation of words and pictures To fully understand this definition we need to know what multimedia learning is... Mayer, Richard E. & Moreno, R. 2003

  16. Cognitive Load- What is it? According to Mayer and Moreno, Multimedia learning is learning fromwords, which can be printed or spoken, and, from pictures, which can be either static such as illustrations, graphics, maps or photos or dynamic such as animations, vidoes or interactive illustrations. Mayer, Richard E. & Moreno, R. 2003

  17. How the Mind Works To understand how cognitive overload occurs, we first need to understand how the mind works.

  18. How the Mind Works There are three assumptions on how the mind works: Mayer, Richard E. & Moreno, R. 2003

  19. How the Mind Works The information enters by two channels: processes auditory and verbal information Auditory/verbal channel processes written and graphical information Visual/pictorial channel

  20. How the Mind Works Each channel has a limited capacity to process information

  21. How the Mind Works Selected Paying attention to the material Organized Organizing the material into a coherent structure The information processing isactive since the information is: Integrated Tying the material to a prior-knowledge Meaningful learning

  22. How the Mind Works Keep in mind these three assumptions as we explore how the mind works.

  23. How the Mind Works Let’s use an example: It is Valentine’s day and you have received a beautiful card from your mate. The card is musical, has a colorful illustration, and a nice written message.

  24. How the Mind Works All the information presented in the card such as the illustration, the writing and the music will be processed in your mind like this:

  25. How the Mind Works The words and the picture are captured by your eyes whereas the words, from the song, are captured by your ears Verbal Rep Selecting words Organizing words *Words Sounds Ears Integrating Prior knowledge Organizing images Pictorial Rep Selecting Images Images Picture Eyes Card Sensory Memory Working Memory Long- term Memory *written and sung words Modified figure from Mayer, Richard E. & Moreno, R. 2003

  26. How the Mind Works All the information coming from the ears and eyes is selected on the way to the working memory. That is, you are paying attention to some of the auditory information from the ears as well as to some of the visual information from the eyes Verbal Rep Selecting words Organizing words Words Sounds Ears Integrating Prior knowledge Organizing images Pictorial Rep Selecting Images Images Picture Eyes Sensory Memory Card Working Memory Long- term Memory Modified figure from Mayer, Richard E. & Moreno, R. 2003

  27. How the Mind Works The selected information is organized into coherent verbal and pictorial representations Verbal Rep Selecting words Organizing words Words Ears Sounds Integrating Prior knowledge Organizing images Pictorial Rep Selecting Images Images Pictures Eyes Sensory Memory Card Working Memory Long- term Memory Modified figure from Mayer, Richard E. & Moreno, R. 2003

  28. How the Mind Works The pictorial and verbal representations are integrated to a prior knowledge, and when this happens, all the information of the card becomes meaningful. Verbal Rep Selecting words Organizing words Words Ears Sounds Integrating Prior knowledge Organizing images Pictorial Rep Selecting Images Images Pictures Eyes Card Sensory Memory Working Memory Long- term Memory Modified figure from Mayer, Richard E. & Moreno, R. 2003

  29. Ways to Reduce Overload There are five different types of cognitive overload.

  30. Ways to Reduce Overload Type of Overload Scenario Load Reducing Method Type 1: Essential processing in visual channel Off-loading: Move some essential processing from the visual channel to the auditory channel. The visual channel is overloaded by essential processing demands. Examples: www.cellsalive.com/mitosis.htm http://www.spaceflightnow.com/station/stage5a/video/dockanim_qt.html Modified table from Mayer, Richard E. & Moreno, R. 2003

  31. Ways to Reduce Overload Type of Overload Scenario Load Reducing Method Type 2: Essential processing (in both channels) Segmenting: allow time between successive bite-size segments www.amazing-kids.org/bouncin gball.html Both channels are overloaded by essential processing demands. Pretraining: provide pertaining names and characteristics of components www.cellsalive.com/mitosis.htm Modified table from Mayer, Richard E. & Moreno, R. 2003

  32. Ways to Reduce Overload Type of Overload Scenario Load Reducing Method Type 3: Essential processing + incidental processing (cause by extraneous material) Weeding: eliminate interesting but extraneous material to reduce processing of extraneous material www.renaissanceconnection.org Signaling: provide cues for how to process the material to reduce processing of extraneous material http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/alienempire/hardware.html Modified table from Mayer, Richard E. & Moreno, R. 2003

  33. Ways to Reduce Overload Type of Overload Scenario Load Reducing Method Aligning: place printed words near corresponding parts of graphics to reduce need for visual scanning Type 4: Essential processing + incidental processing (cause by confusing presentation) http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/fish/anatomy.html http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/alienempire/multimedia/bee.html Eliminating Redundancy: avoid presenting identical streams of printed and spoken words http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/Articles/cognitiveaudio/index.htm http://www.nickjr.com/home/just_for_me_stories.jhtml ->Click on Please, Baby, Please and Rumble Grumble Gurgle Roar links Modified table from Mayer, Richard E. & Moreno, R. 2003.

  34. Ways to Reduce Overload Type of Overload Scenario Load Reducing Method Synchronizing: present narration and corresponding animation simultaneously to minimize need to hold representation in memory Type 5: Essential processing + representation holding (cause by confusing presentation) One or both channels are overloaded by essential processing and representation holding. http://www.zebu.uoregon.edu/animate.html www.nickjr.com/home/please_baby_please/jhtml Individualizing: make sure learners possess skills at holding mental representations Match high-quality multimedia design with high-spatial learners. Modified table from Mayer, Richard E. & Moreno, R. 2003

  35. What’s the Importance? Why should teachers know about cognitive load?

  36. What’s the Importance? Teachers need to present instructional materials so working memory load is reduced. This can be accomplished through: a learning environment that provides helpful instructions breaking a task into smaller parts so the load of information can be handled better providing learning aids such as advance organizers, notes, and summaries

  37. Glossary Glossary Essential Processing: cognitive processes that are required for making sense of the presented material(ex. selecting words, selecting images, organizing words, organizing images, and integrating) Incidental Processing: cognitive processes that are not required for making sense of the presented material but are primed by the design of a learning task(ex. adding background music) Long-term Memory: memory over long periods of time, ranging from hours to days and years

  38. Glossary Representational Holding: cognitive processes aimed at holding a mental representation in working memory over a period of time Sensory Memory: a system that briefly holds stimuli in sensory registers so that perceptual analysis can occur Sensory Registers: buffer where perceptual information is momentarily stored until it is recognized or forgotten Working Memory: portion of memory containing “current contents” of consciousness

  39. Let’s Review On the following screens you will find a few multiple choice review questions covering the material you have just learned. To see the answer to a review question just click to the next screen. The correct answer will be circles in red.

  40. Let’s Review Teachers can use instructional materials to reduce the load on a student’s working memory in all of the following ways except: A. using advanced organizers B. present all parts of a task at one time C. give helpful instructions D. provided notes and summaries

  41. Let’s Review Teachers can use instructional materials to reduce the load on a student’s working memory in all of the following ways except: A. using advanced organizers B. present all parts of a task at one time C. give helpful instructions D. provided notes and summaries

  42. Let’s Review 2. We process information in…: A. Three channels, which are the auditory, verbal and visual channels B. Three channels, which are the verbal, visual and pictorial channels C. Two channels, which are the auditory/verbal and visual/pictorial channels D. One channel, which is the verbal channel E. None of the above

  43. Let’s Review 2. We process information in…: A. Three channels, which are the auditory, verbal and visual channels B. Three channels, which are the verbal, visual and pictorial channels C. Two channels, which are the auditory/verbal and visual/pictorial channels D. One channel, which is the verbal channel E. None of the above

  44. Let’s Review 3. Off-loading is a load reducing method defined as: A. allowing time between successive bite-size segments B. providing cues for how to process the materials to reduce processing of extraneous material C. moving some essential processing from the visual channel to the auditory channel

  45. Let’s Review 3. Off-loading is a load reducing method defined as: A. allowing time between successive bite-size segments B. providing cues for how to process the materials to reduce processing of extraneous material C. moving some essential processing from the visual channel to the auditory channel

  46. Let’s Review Which statement is true: A. The information processing is active since the information is integrated, selected and organized into the working memory B. The information becomes meaningful when it is selected, organized and integrated into the working memory C. The visual channel does not have limited capacity for processing information D. New information is not tied to prior knowledge

  47. Let’s Review Which statement is true: A. The information processing is active since the information is integrated, selected and organized into the working memory B. The information becomes meaningful when it is selected, organized and integrated into the working memory C. The visual channel does not have limited capacity for processing information D. New information is not tied to prior knowledge

  48. Let’s Review 5. Eliminating interesting but extraneous material in an example of what load reducing method? A. aligning B. weeding C. off-loading

  49. Let’s Review 5. Eliminating interesting but extraneous material in an example of what load reducing method? A. aligning B. weeding C. off-loading

  50. Let’s Review 6. A teacher is designing a web-based activity and wishes to present narration and corresponding animation simultaneously to minimize her student’s need to hold representations in memory. She is engaging in which type of load reducing method? A. synchronizing B. segmenting C. aligning