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Honors Chemistry Chapter 4. The Structure of the Atom. Early Theories of Matter. Atomic Theory Democritus Dalton. Dalton’s Atomic Theory. Based on experimental results Matter consists of atoms All the atoms of an element are alike

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Honors chemistry chapter 4

Honors Chemistry Chapter 4

The Structure of the Atom


Early theories of matter
Early Theories of Matter

  • Atomic Theory

    • Democritus

    • Dalton


Dalton s atomic theory
Dalton’s Atomic Theory

  • Based on experimental results

  • Matter consists of atoms

  • All the atoms of an element are alike

  • Atoms of one element differ from atoms of other elements

  • Atoms are indestructible and only rearranged during chemical reactions



Discovery of the electron
Discovery of the electron compounds

  • Cathode ray tube (Crooke’s tube)

  • Pg. 105 picture

  • Cathode rays

    • Particles with negative charge


  • JJ Thompson compounds

  • Used cathode ray tube to determine charge/mass ratio of particles

  • Identified the particles as electrons


Robert millikan
Robert Millikan compounds

  • Calculated the charge and mass of an electron

  • “Oil drop” experiment

  • Electron carries exactly one unit of negative charge

  • Mass is 1/1840 the mass of a hydrogen atom




Important results
IMPORTANT RESULTS!!!! compounds

  • New atomic model

    • Atom mostly empty space

    • Tiny, dense central core – nucleus




  • Book analogy: compounds

  • If an atom had a diameter of 2 football fields, the nucleus would be the size of a nickel!





Nucleons particles located within the nucleus
NUCLEONS – particles located within the nucleus compounds

  • Protons and neutrons

  • Protons

    • Positive charge

    • Mass of 1 amu (atomic mass unit)


  • Neutrons compounds

    • No charge (neutral)

    • Mass = 1 amu


Electrons
Electrons compounds

  • Located outside the nucleus in “shells”

  • Each carries one unit of negative charge

  • Mass 1/1840 amu

  • Pg. 106 chart for subatomic particles


Atomic number
Atomic number compounds

  • Number of protons in the nucleus

  • Identifies the atom as an atom of a particular element

  • Determines its position on the Periodic Table

  • Atomic # = #protons = #electrons


Mass number
MASS NUMBER compounds

  • Number of protons + number of neutrons

  • Number of neutrons =

    mass number – atomic number

    Isotopes


Isotope notation
Isotope Notation compounds

  • Pg. 112 Sample and practice


Average atomic mass
Average atomic mass compounds

  • Weighted average of the naturally occurring isotopes of that element

  • Is a decimal because of the existence of isotopes

  • Pg. 114 Table 4.3

  • Pg. 116-117 #21-24

  • Video: How to Calculate an Average Atomic Weight.


Periodic table
Periodic Table compounds

  • Arrangement of elements where the elements are separated into groups bases on a set of repeating properties

  • Can compare properties of elements based on their position on the table



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