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Chapter 12 pages 232-240. CHILD LABOUR: Children had always worked with their families (fishing, farming, etc.). Factory work was different because:. No caring family members to help Hours were long with no breaks Children were punished for mistakes Equipment and tools were dangerous.

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Chapter 12 pages 232 240
Chapter 12 pages 232-240


Children had always worked with their families (fishing, farming, etc.)

Factory work was different because
Factory work was different because:

  • No caring family members to help

  • Hours were long with no breaks

  • Children were punished for mistakes

  • Equipment and tools were dangerous

Things began to get better for children because
Things began to get better for children because:

  • People started to realize the harm being done to the children’s health

  • Some people thought all children should have right to education

  • Existing child labour laws were largely ignored until the 1930’s

Wages and benefits
Wages and Benefits:

  • Factory workers paid by the shift or by the piece of work they did

  • Small wages; difficult to support a family

  • Workers could be fined for any little thing

  • Women paid less than men

  • Children paid less than women

Living conditions
Living conditions:

  • Some lived in “company towns”

  • Often lived in poorest areas of the city

  • Very crowded conditions

  • No running water, no sewage facilities

  • Disease was common and easy to spread

  • Fires were common

New opportunities
New Opportunities:

  • Workers needed in stores, offices, factories

  • Operators needed for new telephone and telegraph technologies

  • Typewriter was invented; changed offices

  • These new opportunities available to “White” women

Positive aspects of factory work
Positive Aspects of Factory Work:

  • Available to women without education

  • Domestic work didn’t allow much freedom

  • Had a paycheck

  • Could meet other people

  • Had a day off

  • Women were the main workers in textile (cloth) and garment (clothing) industries


  • The company provides the materials

  • Workers (women) took it home to do

  • Paid for each “piece” they produced

  • Children at home often helped

  • Paid less than in factories


  • When a group of women worked under one boss

  • Often recent immigrants that didn’t speak English

  • Called this because they worked so hard

  • Also refers to the worst kind of garment factories

The office girl
The Office “Girl”

  • Women needed to learn typing and shorthand

  • Learned to manage the office and act as servants for their male bosses

  • Women earned about half the pay as a man

  • Opened up the world of business to women but took many years before women had real opportunities

Labour unions p236 237
LABOUR UNIONS (p236-237)

During the late 1800’s and early 1900’s, Unions didn’t have much effect on the lives of workers, but they were the first steps in changing ideas about the rights of workers.

Craft unions
Craft Unions:

  • Started in mid 1800’s by craft workers

  • people with special skills (ex. Shoemakers, tailors, bakers, etc.)

  • Tried to stop companies from replacing them with machines

  • Only male workers could join

Trade unions
Trade Unions:

  • Workers in resource industries wanted to change their working conditions

  • Formed “trade unions”

  • Unions would negotiate with companies for better pay, etc.

  • Unions helped improve the lives of members and their families

  • Were part of their community life as well

What unions achieved p239
What Unions Achieved:(p239)

  • There were many conflicts between Unions and Companies, some violent

  • Sometimes workers didn’t benefit

  • Slowly, Unions gained power and companies had to compromise to improve conditions and wages

  • Eventually, laws were made to benefit all workers