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Evolution Overview Charles Darwin. Proposed the Theory of Evolution Evolution -gradual change in a species through adaptations over time Theory of Evolution= Natural Selection. Natural Selection. Natural selection is based on the following ideas: natural variation

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evolution overview charles darwin
Evolution OverviewCharles Darwin
  • Proposed the Theory of Evolution
  • Evolution-gradual change in a species through adaptations over time
  • Theory of Evolution= Natural Selection
natural selection
Natural Selection
  • Natural selection is based on the following ideas:
    • natural variation
    • production of more offspring than can survive
    • competition for resources, and to escape predators
    • differential survival based on traits
  • Organisms with traits well suited to an environment are more likely to survive and produce more offspring than organisms without these favorable traits.
evidence for evolution
Evidence for Evolution
  • Evolution occurs over millions of years and cannot be seen in one lifetime
  • Scientists rely on evidence to support the Theory of Evolution
1 adaptations
1.) Adaptations
  • Adaptation- structure or behavior that helps an organism better survive in its environment.
slide5

Mimicry- a structural adaptation that enables one species to resemble another species.

  • Camouflage- a structural adaptation that allows a species to blend in with its surroundings
slide6

Physiological Adaptation- changes in an organism’s metabolism that occurs quickly. Many bacteria have become resistant to penicillin over the last 50 years

2 fossil record
2.) Fossil Record
  • Fossil-trace of a dead organism. Examples bones, dinosaur track, insects trapped in tree sap, impressions of leaves, animals buried in tar or ice
  • Give clues are to what ancient organisms looked like
  • Compare fossils to organisms we know today
  • Today’s species had to evolved from ancient species
3 comparative anatomy
3.) Comparative Anatomy
  • Homolgous Structures- body structures on different organisms that are similar in structure or function and evolved from the same ancestor
slide10

Analogous Structures- Body structures on different organisms that are similar in function but did not evolve from the same ancestor.

slide11

Vestigial Structures- Body structure in an organism that no longer serves its original purpose but was useful to the ancestor

slide12

Embryo- earliest stage of growth and development of both plant and animals

  • Human embryos and embryos of all other vertebrates are very similar which suggests that all vertebrates are related
slide13

Nearly all organisms have DNA, ATP, and many of the same enzymes

  • The DNA of closely related organisms looks very similar
natural selection1
Natural Selection
  • Occurs in populations over time not individuals
  • Population- all the members of a species that live in an area
  • Gene Pool- all of the alleles of the population’s genes
slide15

Genetic Equilibrium- the frequency of alleles remains the same over generations

  • Populations in genetic equilibrium are not changing so they are not evolving
  • Anything that changes the genes in the populations gene pool will cause evolution to occur
what causes changes in the gene pool
What Causes Changes in the Gene Pool?
  • 1. Mutations that occur by chance or by radiation and chemicals
  • 2. Genetic drift: frequency of alleles are changed by random events in an isolated population
slide17

3. Gene flow: the transport of genes by traveling individuals

  • 4. Non-random mating: Individuals selecting mates with specific heritable traits (sexual selection)
  • 5. Natural selection
3 conditions of natural selection
3 Conditions of Natural Selection
  • Struggle for existence: more offspring are produced than can survive so organisms compete for survival
  • Natural variation among individuals
  • Survival of the fittest
3 types of natural selection
3 Types of Natural Selection
  • Stabilizing selection: favors average individuals in a population
  • Directional selection: favors one of the extreme variations of a trait
  • Disruptive/diversifying selection: favors individuals with either extreme of a trait
speciation
Speciation
  • Evolution of a new species that occurs when members of similar populations no longer breed with each other to produce fertile offspring
slide21

There are several reasons why similar populations no longer breed

    • Geographic isolation: when a physical barrier (lava from volcanic eruptions, sea level changes, etc.) divides a population
slide22

Reproductive isolation: occurs when organisms no longer breed with each other to produce fertile offspring because of

  • Differences in genes
  • Mating times change
  • Different numbers of chromosomes
how fast does speciation occur
How fast does speciation occur?
  • Gradualism: idea that species originate through a gradual change of adaptations (longer than 10,000 years)
  • Punctuated equilibrium: idea that species originate in rapid bursts (10,000 years or less) with long periods of genetic equilibrium in between
two types of evolution
Two types of evolution
  • Divergent evolution (adaptive radiation): species that once were similar become increasingly different
  • Convergent evolution: distantly related organisms evolve similar traits