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The Jane Schaffer Writing Program The Multi-paragraph Essay
Parts of an Essay Write these notes in your yellow JS Writing Packet • What is an Essay? • A piece of writing that gives your thoughts (CD and CM) about a subject. • Formal essays include: intro, body pgfs, conclusion • Diff types of essays (also called “modes”): • Narration • Exposition • Information • Summarization • Persuasion • Argumentation • Analytical (Literary Analysis) • Style analysis
2. The Introduction • First paragraph in an essay • Includes thesis, most often at the end • Begins broadly and narrows to thesis
3. Thesis Statement • Statement with subject and opinion (commentary) • Comes somewhere in your introduction (most often at end) • Acts as “roadmap” for entire essay
4. Body Paragraphs • Paragraphs between intro and conclusion • Each pgf. develops a point you want to make which supports your thesis statement • Each pgf. includes: TS, facts and opinions (CDs and CMs), and CS
5. The Conclusion • Last pgf. In essay • Begins narrow w/restatement of thesis then broadens • It may: • Sum up ideas • Reflect on what you said • Provide more commentary • Give personal statement abt subject
6. Transitions • Words, phrases, sentences that link ideas • Provide a smooth and logical flow to your thoughts
Parts of a Paragraph Topic Sentence (TS) • First sentence in body paragraph • For lit analysis and narrative: Includes subject and writer’s opinion • For argumentation, expository/informational: includes subject
2. Concrete Detail (CD) • Specific details that form “backbone” of your body pgfs. • Facts, specifics, examples, descriptions, illustrations, support, proof, evidence, quotations, paraphrasing, plot references
Transitional Lead-In to a CD (TLCD) • Phrase that introduces a quotation • Usually illustrates what is happening in the scene
4. Commentary (CM) • Your opinion or comment; not concrete detail • Your insights, analysis, interpretation, inference, personal response, feelings, evaluation, explication, reflection
5. Chunk • Smallest unified group of thoughts in a pgf. that combine CDs and CMs • Depends on ratio for each mode
6. Ratio (CD:CM) • Typically, Literary analysis = 1 Chunk • 1 chunk has a ratio of (1:2+) • 1 CD (concrete detail), plus 2 or more sentences of CM (Commentary) • Typically, Argumentation, expository/informational, narrative = (2+:1) • 2 or more sentences of CDs, plus 1 CM • Typically, Summary (3+:0)
7. Transitions • Words, Phrases, sentences that link ideas. • Transitions are important within and between body paragraphs.
8. Concluding Sentences (CD) • The last sentence in a body paragraph, the CS is all commentary. • Do not repeat key words from the paragraph.
10/15: Journal – “Camping” • Write about a time you went camping…(if you’ve never been camping, write about a time you spent outdoors) • Who went with you? • Where did you go? • What types of things did you do? What happened while you were there? • When did you go? • How often do you go camping?
Process of Writing & JS Steps in that Process 1. Pre-Writing • Prewriting includes mapping, clustering, bubbling, webbing, brainstorming, free writing, and outlining.
2. Gathering CDS • Jane Schaffer “Gathering CDs” think sheet helps you determine which CDs you will use in each paragraph. • Also helps with providing preliminary CMs based on your CDs selected and helps with your Topic Sentence.
3. T-Charting • T-Chart is a think-sheet that helps you begin forming a paragraph with a Topic Sentence, CDs, CMs, and concluding sentence.
4. Web-Off-The-Word • The WOW think-sheet helps figure out different ways to say something. • Helps develop your vocabulary and own style of writing.
5. Web-Off-The-Topic-Sentence • The WOW think-sheet helps you create concluding sentence by selecting the most important words phases and ideas surrounding your TS. • Keeps you focused & not repeating yourself.
6. Weaving • Blending CDs and CMs • Once you have structured format mastered, you are ready to move to weaving
7. The Shaping Sheet • Step after Pre-writing and before the First Draft 1) Include transitions between ideas; 2) Vary your sentence openings; 3) Include different types of sentences; 4) Correct Spelling, Punctuation, and capitalization errors 5) Add or delete words, phrases, and sentences to create your voice and style
8. Peer Response • Written responses and reactions to teacher- directed component of your partner’s paper. • Occurs with shaping sheets and first drafts.
9. First Draft • First version of your essay (Rough Draft) • Combine introduction, body paragraphs, and conclusions, editing and revising along the way.
10. Final Draft • Final Version of your essay. • Ready to submit your essay!