Course: Statistics Module: Systematic reviews Lecture 1: Introduction to s ystematic reviews - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Course: Statistics Module: Systematic reviews Lecture 1: Introduction to s ystematic reviews

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  1. Course: Statistics Module: Systematic reviews Lecture 1: Introduction to systematic reviews Description: Introduction to systematic reviews and how to perform them Author: Dr Susan D. Shenkin

  2. Learning Objectives • On completion of this lecture, you should be able to: • define what a systematic review is • identify and use some useful resources • discuss the differences between systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials and observational studies • describe the process of how to perform a systematic review

  3. What is a systematic review? “collates all empirical evidence that fits pre-specified eligibility criteria in order to answer a specific research question ” http://www.cochrane-handbook.org/

  4. What is a systematic review? • clearly stated objectives with pre-defined eligibility criteria for studies • explicit, reproducible methodology • a systematic search that attempts to identify all studies • assessment of the validity of the findings of the included studies (e.g. risk of bias) • systematic presentation, and synthesis, of the characteristics and findings of the included studies http://www.cochrane-handbook.org/

  5. What is a meta-analysis? “the use of statistical methods to summarize the results of independent studies ” i.e. A specific type of systematic review

  6. Why are reviews needed? • Massive numbers of publications • Both print, and electronic media • Diverse languages • Different countries • Primary studies can appear contradictory • Psychology and social sciences predated medical systematic reviews (1930s)

  7. Why are systematic reviews needed? Literature/narrative/critical review: • Often not replicable/updated • May be biased by prior beliefs • May be commissioned due to published opinion • Often miss small but important effects • Different reviewers reached different conclusions • Affected by subspecialty of reviewer • Little attempt to discuss heterogeneity

  8. Why are systematic reviews needed? Benefits of therapy not brought into clinical practice • e.g. Clot-busters/beta blockers for heart attacks • SR would have identified benefit in mid-1970s • Not in clinical practice till 1990s Inadequate summaries of current knowledge • Omitted mention of effective treatment, or suggested only as part of trials

  9. Why are systematic reviews needed? • As part of student dissertation/PG thesis • To secure grant funding for research • To propose future research agenda • To establish clinical or cost-effectiveness • To establish feasibility of an intervention • To allow information to be assimilated quickly and easily • To reduce delay of research to clinical practice • Note this is as substantial a piece of work as original research

  10. Problems with systematic reviews • Vary in quality • Require updating (often by time of publication) • May not include all studies • Non-English • Grey literature • Early literature • Quality assessment can still be subjective

  11. Why are systematic reviews needed? • Mostly • A substantive question • Several primary studies • Uncertainty • Can be of • RCTs (randomised controlled trials) of intervention (vaccine, drug, behaviour) • e.g. MMR, clot busters, exercise after stroke • Observational studies • e.g. Birth weight and IQ, IQ and mortality, WMH and morbidity/mortality

  12. ‘Hierarchy of evidence’

  13. RCTs or observational studies • RCTs • ‘gold standard’ for interventions • Minimise bias • Exposed/unexposed groups are comparable • ‘Bigger is better’ http://www.cochrane-handbook.org/

  14. RCTs or observational studies • Observational studies • The majority of studies • When RCTs are not ethical/feasible/done • Need clarity about design ?filter by method • What search techniques are appropriate? • Concern about bias, confounding (bigger not always better) • Difficult to combine different study designs • May require original data • Meta-analysis can be spuriously precise and misleading http://www.cochrane-handbook.org/

  15. Introduction to Cochrane • Archie Cochrane (1909-88) • British epidemiologist • Advocated RCTs to inform healthcare practice • Cochrane collaboration • Cochrane Reviews (>4,000) registered • Identify, appraise and synthesise research-based evidence and present it in accessible format; regularly updated • Focus on interventions • Outstanding general resource The School of Medicine, Cardiff University and the Cochrane Archive http://www.cochrane-handbook.org/

  16. Introduction to Campbell Collaboration • Systematic reviews of the effects of social interventions • Prepare, maintain and disseminate systematic reviews in education, crime and justice, and social welfare • Register relevant reviews • Links to useful methodology sites • Effect sizes • Campbell Collaboration Resource Centre http://www.campbellcollaboration.org/

  17. Introduction to EPPI-Centre • Evidence for Policy and Practice Information and Co-ordinating Centre • Systematic reviews of public policy • Education, health promotion, employment, social care, criminal justice • Online evidence library • Methods, tools and databases (quantitative and qualitative) • EPPI-Centre (March 2007) EPPI-Centre methods for conducting systematic reviews. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London. http://eppi.ioe.ac.uk/

  18. Introduction to PROSPERO • Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, York • Evaluate the effects of health and social care interventions and the delivery and organisation of health care • Guidance on systematic reviews • PROSPERO • International prospective register of SRs • DARE • abstracts of quality assessed systematic reviews and details of all Cochrane reviews and protocols • NHS EED • HTA http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/

  19. Introduction to EQUATOR • Enhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of health Research • Started March 2006 • Grew from guideline development groups (including CONSORT) • Aim to: • provide resources and education enabling the improvement of health research reporting • monitor progress in the improvement of health research reporting http://www.equator-network.org/

  20. Introduction to EQUATOR • Detailed reporting guidelines • CONSORT Statement (reporting of randomized controlled trials) • STARD (reporting of diagnostic accuracy studies) • STROBE(reporting of observational studies in epidemiology) • PRISMA (reporting of systematic reviews), which replaced QUOROM • MOOSE (reporting of meta-analyses of observational studies) • Minimum Information for Biological and Biomedical Investigation (MIBBI) portal • e.g. minimum dataset for fMRI studies http://www.equator-network.org/resource-centre/library-of-health-research-reporting/

  21. How to do a systematic review? • Define a question • Search the literature • Assess the studies • Combine the results • Put the findings in context

  22. How to do a systematic review? • Define a question • Search the literature • Assess the studies • Combine the results • Put the findings in context

  23. How to do a systematic review? • Define a question • Search the literature • Assess the studies • Combine the results (Geoff Der) • Put the findings in context

  24. Presenting and assessing results • Use the 27-point PRISMA checklist • Use the PRISMA flow diagram • Essential to ensure high quality reviews • Use other checklists for your primary studies Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, The PRISMA Group (2009). Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: The PRISMA Statement. PLoS Med 6(6): e1000097. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed1000097

  25. Putting the results in context Writing the paper: • Follow conventional structure • Be clear and comprehensive • Should be reproducible • Check with target journal (length?) • Very useful guide by Prof Joanna Wardlaw (SBIRC)

  26. You have now reached the end of this lecture, and you should be able to: • define what a systematic review is • identify and use some useful resources • discuss the differences between systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials and observational studies • describe the process of how to perform a systematic review

  27. Acknowledgements http://www.dcn.ed.ac.uk/dcn/default.asp Division of Clinical Neurosciences (DCN), especially Prof Joanna Wardlaw www.ccace.ed.ac.uk The work was supported by The University of Edinburgh Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, part of the cross council Lifelong Health and Wellbeing Initiative (G0700704/84698). Funding from the BBSRC, EPSRC, ESRC and MRC is gratefully acknowledged.