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Session 21. Strategy Implementation. Strategic Management Model. Involves development of support systems that. Strategy Implementation . Identify short-term objectives. Initiate specific functional tactics. Communicate policies to empower people. Design effective reward systems .

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Session 21


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session 21
Session 21

Strategy Implementation

strategy implementation

Involves development of support systems that

Strategy Implementation

Identify short-term objectives

Initiate specific functional tactics

Communicate policies to empower people

Design effective reward systems

what are short term objectives
What are Short-Term Objectives?

Provide specific guidance for what is to be done, translating vision into action

role of short term objectives in implementing strategy
Role of Short-Term Objectives in Implementing Strategy

1.“Operationalize” long-term objectives

2. Raise issues and potential conflicts requiring coordination to avoid dysfunctional consequences

3. Identify measurable outcomes of functional activities to be used to make feedback, correction, and evaluation more relevant

potential conflicting objectives and priorities

Chief Executive Officer

Marketing

Finance and accounting

Manufacturing

  • Distribution channels
  • Customer service
  • Inventory obsolescence
  • Communications and data processing
  • Carrying inventory
  • Production supply alternatives
  • Warehousing
  • Transportation

Responsibilities

  • More inventory
  • Less inventory
  • Frequent short runs
  • Long production runs

Objectives

  • Fast order processing
  • Cheap order processing
  • Lowest cost routing
  • Fast delivery
  • Field warehousing
  • Less warehousing
  • Plant warehousing
Potential Conflicting Objectives and Priorities
relationship of action plans to short term objectives

Action plans enhance short-term objectives in three ways

Relationship of Action Plans to Short-Term Objectives

Specificity - Identify functional activities to be undertaken to build competitive advantage

Provide a clear time frame for completion

Identify who is responsible for each action in the plan

qualities of effective short term objectives

Measurable

Priorities

Linked to long-term objectives

Qualities of Effective Short-term Objectives
value added benefits of short term objectives
Value-Added Benefits of Short-Term Objectives

Give operating personnel a better understanding of their role in a firm’s mission

Provide basis for accomplishing conflicting concerns

Provide basis for strategic control

Motivation - Clarify personal and group roles in a firm’s strategies

functional tactics aka short term strategies
Functional Tactics (aka Short Term Strategies)
  • key, routine activities that must be undertaken in each functional area to provide the business’s products and services
  • In a sense, functional tactics translate thought into action
  • Every value chain activity in a company executes

functional tactics that support the business’s strategy and help accomplish strategic objectives

functional tactics at general cinema corporation

Corporate Strategy

Business Strategies

Functional Tactics

Functional tactics: Marketing

Seek only first-run films by outbidding competition in each local market; provide primarily family-oriented movies; and maintain an admission price only slightly above that of local competition.

Corporate strategy

Achieve 15-20 % annual growth through existing businesses and carefully selected diversification into leisure-oriented, consumer-oriented product/service businesses to absorb increasing cash flow from theater and soft-drink bottling operations.

Concentration and market development selective

Maintain and selectively expand leading nationwide position in the movie exhibition industry to provide positive cash flow for corporate diversification.

Soft drink bottlers

Functional tactics: Finance

Use lease or sale and leaseback arrangements of each theater to maximize cash flow for corporate expansions; seek profitability through volume, not higher ticket prices.

Movie exhibition

Functional tactics: Operations

Use multiscreen facilities with minimal maintenance requirements and a joint service area to serve each minitheater.

Sunkist products

Functional Tactics at General Cinema Corporation
functional tactics
Functional Tactics
  • Functional tactics are different from business or corporate strategies in three fundamental ways:
    • Time horizon
    • Specificity
    • Participants who develop

them

characteristics of functional tactics in production operations
Characteristics of Functional Tactics in Production/Operations
  • Viewed as core function of an organization
  • Involves converting inputs into value-enhanced output
  • Focuses on decisions regarding
    • Basic nature of firm’s POM system,
      • Seeks optimum balance between investment input and production/operations output
    • Location
    • Facilities design
    • Process planning on a short-term basis
key functional tactics in pom

Functional Tactic

Typical Questions the Functional Tactic Should Answer

Facilities and equipment

  • How centralized should the facilities be?
  • How integrated should the separate processes be?
  • To what extent should further mechanization or automation be pursued?
  • Should size and capacity be oriented toward peak or normal operating levels?

Sourcing

  • How many sources are needed?
  • How should suppliers be selected, and how should relationships with suppliers be managed over time?
  • What level of forward buying (hedging) is appropriate?

Operations planning and control

  • Should work be scheduled to order or to stock?
  • What level of inventory is appropriate?
  • How should inventory be used (FIFO/LIFO), controlled, and replenished?
  • What are the key foci for control efforts?
  • Should maintenance be oriented to prevention or to breakdown?
Key Functional Tactics in POM
characteristics of functional tactics in marketing
Characteristics of Functional Tactics in Marketing
  • Lead to strategic success of the firm through the profitable sale of products/services in target markets
  • Clearly identify customer needs that products/services aim to meet
  • Identify where, when, and by whom products/services are to be sold
  • Define how firm will communicate with target markets
  • Directly influence supply, demand, profitability, consumer perception, and regulatory response through pricing
key functional tactics in marketing

Functional Tactic

Typical Questions the Functional Tactic Should Answer

Product or service

  • Which products do we emphasize?
  • Which products/services contribute most to profitability?
  • What product/service image do we seek to project?
  • What consumer needs does the product/service seek to meet?
  • What changes should be influencing our customer orientation?

Price

  • Are we competing primarily on price?
  • Can we offer discounts or other pricing modifications?
  • Are our pricing policies standard nationally, or is there regional control?
  • What price segments are targeting?
  • What is the gross profit margin?

Place

  • What level of market coverage is necessary?
  • Are there priority geographic areas?
  • What are the key channels of distribution?
  • What are the channel objectives, structure, and management?
  • What sales organization do we want?

Promotion

  • What are the key promotion priorities and approaches?
  • Which advertising/communication priorities and approaches are linked to different products, markets, and territories?
  • Which media would be most consistent with the total marketing strategy?
Key Functional Tactics in Marketing
characteristics of functional tactics in accounting and finance
Characteristics of Functional Tactics in Accounting and Finance
  • Time frame of finance tactics varies because they direct use of financial resources supporting the business strategy, long-term goals, and annual objectives
  • Long-term tactics guide decisions in
    • Long-term capital investment
    • Debt financing
    • Dividend allocation
    • Leveraging
  • Short-term tactics guide decisions in
    • Managing working capital and short-term assets
  • Accounting-focused tactics have taken on increased strategic significance in last decade
key functional tactics in finance and accounting

Functional Tactic

Typical Questions the Functional Tactic Should Answer

Capital acquisition

  • What is an acceptable cost of capital?
  • What is desired proportion of short- and long-term debt? Preferred and common stock?
  • What balance is desired between internal and external funding?
  • What risk and ownership restrictions are appropriate?
  • What level and forms of leasing should be used?

Capital allocation

  • What are the priorities for capital allocation projects?
  • On what basis should the final selection of projects be made?
  • What level of capital allocation can be made by operating managers without higher approval?

Dividend and working capital manage-ment

  • What portion of earnings should be paid out as dividends?
  • Are things other than cash appropriate as dividends?
  • What are the cash flow requirements? Minimum and maximum?
  • How liberal/conservative should credit policies be?
  • What limits, payment terms, and collection procedures are necessary?
  • What payment timing and procedure should be followed?
Key Functional Tactics in Finance and Accounting
characteristics of functional tactics in r d
Characteristics of Functional Tactics in R&D
  • Assumed a key strategic role in many firms due to increasing rate of technological change
  • May be more critical instruments of business strategy in some industries than in others
key functional tactics in r d

Functional Tactic

Typical Questions the Functional Tactic Should Answer

Basic research vs. product and process development

  • To what extent should innovation and breakthrough research be emphasized? In relation to the emphasis on product development, refinement, and modification?
  • What critical operating processes need R&D attention?
  • What new products are necessary to support growth?

Time horizon

  • Is the emphasis short-term or long-term?
  • Which orientation best supports the business strategy? The marketing and production strategy?

Organiza-tional fit

  • Should R&D be done in-house or contracted out?
  • Should R&D be centralized or decentralized?
  • What should be the relationship between the R&D units and product managers? Marketing managers? Production managers?

Basic R&D posture

  • Should the firm maintain an offensive posture, seeking to lead innovation in its industry?
  • Should the firm adopt a defensive posture, responding to the innovations of its competitors?
Key Functional Tactics in R&D
characteristics of functional tactics in hrm
Characteristics of Functional Tactics in HRM
  • Assumed increasing strategic importance in the 1990s
  • Aid long-term success in
    • Development of managerial talent and competent employees
    • Creating systems to manage compensation or regulatory concerns
    • Guiding effective utilization of human resources to achieve both the
      • Firm’s short-term objectives
      • Employees’ satisfaction and development
key functional tactics in hrm

Functional Tactic

Typical Questions the Functional Tactic Should Answer

Recruitment, selection, and orientation

  • What key human resources are needed to support chosen strategy?
  • How do we recruit these human resources?
  • How sophisticated should our selection process be?
  • How should we introduce new employees to the organization?

Career development and training

  • What are our future human resource needs?
  • How can we prepare our people to meet these needs?
  • How can we help our people develop?

Compensa-tion

  • What levels of pay are appropriate for the tasks we require?
  • How can we motivate and retain good people?
  • How should we interpret our payment, incentive, benefit, and seniority policies?

Evaluation, discipline, and control

  • How often should we evaluate our people? Formally or informally?
  • What disciplinary steps should we take to deal with poor performance or inappropriate behavior?
  • In what ways should we “control” individual and group performance?

Labor relations and EEO requirements

  • How can we maximize labor-management cooperation?
  • How do our personnel practices affect women/minorities/
  • Should we have hiring policies?
Key Functional Tactics in HRM
empowering operating personnel policies
Empowering Operating Personnel: Policies
  • Empowerment is the act of allowing an individual or team the right and flexibility to make decisions and initiate action
  • Policies are directives designed to guide the thinking, decisions, and actions of managers and their subordinates in implementing a firm’s strategy
creating policies that empower
Creating Policies That Empower
  • Policies establish indirect control over independent action
  • Policies promote uniform handling of similar activities
  • Policies ensure quicker decisions by standardizing answers to recurring questions
  • Policies institutionalize basic aspects of organization behavior
  • Policies reduce uncertainty in repetitive and day-to-day decision making
  • Policies counteract resistance
  • Policies afford managers a mechanism for avoiding hasty decisions
advantages of formal written policies
Advantages of Formal, Written Policies
  • They require managers to think through the policy’s meaning, content, and intended use
  • They reduce misunderstanding
  • They make equitable and consistent treatment of problems more likely
  • They ensure unalterable transmission of policies
  • They communicate the authorization or sanction of policies more clearly
  • They supply a convenient and authoritative reference
  • They systematically enhance indirect control and organization wide coordination of the key purposes of policies
executive compensation plans
Executive Compensation Plans
  • Stock options provide the executive with the right to purchase company stock at a fixed price in the future
  • Restricted stock is designed to provide benefits of direct executive stock ownership
  • Golden handcuffs occur where the stock compensation is deferred until vesting time provisions are met or a bonus is deferred
  • Golden parachutes are a form of bonus compensation that is designed to retain talented executives
  • Cash bonuses based on accounting measures