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Chapter 2 european colonies in america
Chapter 2: European Colonies in America

The Big Picture: Following Columbus’ voyages, European nations competed to establish colonies in the Americas. By 1733 the English had founded a diverse group of colonies along the Atlantic Ocean seaboard. Their efforts, however, had disastrous consequences for the Native Americans.

Chapter 2 section 1 european settlements in north america
Chapter 2 Section 1: European Settlements in North America

Main Idea: In the 1500s and 1600s, European nations led by Spain, continued to explore, claim territory, and build settlements in America.

Spanish conquistadors
Spanish Conquistadors

  • 1494: Catholic Spain and Portugal appeal to the Pope to resolve competing claims to the New World

  • theTreaty of Tordesillas: drew a line on the map and gave all land to the west of the line to Spain and all land east to Portugal

    Ponce de Leon & Florida

  • Spanish explorers called conquistadors began exploring the Caribbean, South, and Central America after Columbus

  • Their goals were “God, gold, glory”

  • Ponce de Leon sailed with Columbus, was governor of Puerto Rico, and searched for the fabled fountain of youth

  • He became the first Spanish explorer in mainland North America when he claimed Florida for Spain

    Cortez and the Aztec

  • Cortez claimed and explored Mexico in an attempt to find gold

  • When attempting to conquer the Aztec, he was aided by the enemies of the Aztec and an ancient legend that made them believe the Spanish were messengers from the Gods

  • The Aztec fell to the Spanish in 1521

Golden Cities and other Explorers

  • The successful domination of the Aztec and persistent rumors of cities of gold encouraged other explorers to push into modern-day Mexico, Texas, and Florida

  • Explorers like de Soto, Cabrillo and de Coronado explored as far north as Tennessee and as far west as California, but did not find the gold they wanted

  • Eventually the Spanish focused on mining in Mexico

  • 1565: Spanish establish a colony at St. Augustine, Florida

  • It is the oldest city in the US today

Spain builds an empire
Spain Builds an Empire

Social Structure

  • Spanish crown appointed viceroyalty to run new colonies that were being established

  • Social classes in the colonies emerged; peninsulares (those born in Spain) felt they were superior to creoles (pureblood Spanish born in the New World)

  • Under the creoles were those who mixed with Native Americans called mestizos, then Spanish and African, then pure-blood Indians, and Africans

  • Also key to Spanish American social structure were missionaries who served to convert natives to Catholicism and to teach the faithful

Land, Labor, and the Pueblo Revolt

  • Spanish established the encomienda system: Spanish received grants of land from the crown and the use of labor from the people who lived on the land

  • The Natives were expected to convert to Christianity and work for the new owner

  • The owner was expected to treat the natives humanely, but they were routinely enslaved and worked to death on plantations called haciendas

  • 1680: Pueblo Indians revolt against the Spanish led by Pope

  • He was successful in driving the Spanish out of Santa Fe, but in 1692 Spanish soldiers retook the area

Other nations explore
Other Nations Explore

England’s Navy

  • 1497: John Cabot arrives in Newfoundland & thinks he is in Asia; claims it for England

  • 1500s- England realizes it is new land and begins looking for a northwest passage to Asia

  • 1577: Protestant Queen Elizabeth builds up the English navy to challenge Catholic Spain; Sir Francis Drake first to circumnavigate the globe

    New France

  • 1524: Giovanni de Verrazano explores from the Carolinas to Maine for France

  • 1534: Jacques Cartier discovers the St. Lawrence River and explores Quebec and Montreal

  • 1608: Samuel de Champlain establishes trade in furs and fish in Quebec

  • 1666: Sieur de la Salle explores Great Lakes region and Mississippi River, claiming the land for France (called it Louisiana for French king Louis XIV)

    New Netherland

  • 1609: Henry Hudson sent by the Netherlands to find the Northwest Passage

  • He discovers the Hudson River and claims land along the Atlantic coast for the Dutch

Chapter 2 section 2 the english in virginia
Chapter 2 Section 2: The English in Virginia

Main Idea: After several failures, the English established a permanent settlement at Jamestown, Virginia.

The first english colonies
The First English Colonies


  • Queen Elizabeth allows Sir Walter Raleigh to lead an expedition the Atlantic Coast

  • He calls the land Virginia after her (“virgin queen”)

  • 1587 Raleigh and governor John White establish a colony at Roanoke Island and established friendly relations with Manteo

  • Virginia Dare first English born in the New World

  • White was forced to return to England for supplies and was delayed 3 years due to war with Spain in returning

  • 1590: White returns but all of the settlers are gone, with only Croatoancarved on a post

  • They are called the ‘Lost Colony’

King James’ Charter

  • Under King James I, England tries again to settle the Atlantic Coast

  • Charter rights to establishing colonies were transferred from Raleigh to the London Company & the Plymouth Company in 1606

  • These were join-stock companies: investors pooled money to fund and govern the colony and split any profits

The jamestown colony
The Jamestown Colony

First Settlers and Captain Smith

  • 1606: 100 men arrive at the James River under the London Company and built Jamestown

  • The location was not ideal; swampy and in the middle of the Powhatan Confederacy

  • The settlers succumbed to malaria and dysentery and many were gentry who refused to work

  • By January 1608, only 38 men remained

  • Captain John Smith became the leader of Jamestown and imposed military discipline in the colony

  • he was able to trade for food with the local tribe and had even been saved from being executed by Pocahontas, the chief’s daughter

  • conditions improved in the colony, but John Smith was forced to return to England after being burned in a powder accident

The Starving Time and Tobacco

  • London Company sent more settlers in 1609, offering free passage to anyone willing to work for seven years

  • The winter of 1609-1610 was the worst in the colony, called the starving time: many died from Indian raids and starvation

  • John Rolfe saves the colony by experimenting with the cultivation of tobacco

  • 1613: Rolfe secures peace between Jamestown and the Algonquians by marrying Pocahontas

  • 1622: relations with the natives deteriorate after Powhatan and Pocahontas die

  • Settlers were taking increasing amounts of land for tobacco cultivation , triggering an attack by the Powhatans

  • Many, including Rolfe, died and the crown revoked the Virginia Company’s charter, but the colony survived

Virginia grows and changes
Virginia Grows and Changes

The Headright System and the House of Burgesses

  • 1618: Virginia Company begins offering headrights: 50 acres of land for each family member and servant or for any one else they paid passage for

  • Artisans and 100 singlewomen were also sent to make to colony more stable

  • By the 1640s, there were 8,000 settlers, 16,000 by 1650

  • 1619: formation of the House of Burgesses: membership went to white, landholding males

  • They had the power to raise taxes and make laws, but the laws could be vetoed by the governor who was appointed by the crown

  • This was the first legislature in America

Colonial Workers and Conflict

  • Indentured servants: majority of workers- they received passage to America and worked 4 to 7 years

  • at the end of service, they received clothes as well as tools or land

  • Men outnumbered women 3 to 1

  • 1619: Dutch ship arrives with 20 African slaves; by the late 1600s, slavery replaced indentured servants for cheap labor

  • Conflict increases between rich settlers in the east and poor settlers in the west dealing with high taxes and conflict with Natives

  • Governor William Berkeley refuses to aid settlers, hoping for good fur trading with the Natives

  • Bacon’s Rebellion: former indentured servants march on Jamestown, burning the city

  • the rebellion collapses when Bacon becomes ill and dies, but the House of Burgesses does open more land to settlement and slave labor increases

Chapter 2 section 3 the northern colonies
Chapter 2 Section 3: The Northern Colonies

Main Idea: The Pilgrims founded colonies in Massachusetts based on Puritan religious ideals, while dissent led to the founding of other New England colonies.

Puritans flee to freedom
Puritans Flee to Freedom

Puritans and Separatists

  • Protestant Reformation led to establishment of the Church of England (Anglican Church)

  • Puritans felt the Anglican Church was still to Catholic, and wanted to ‘purify’ it further

  • Separatists wanted a complete break with the Anglican Church and were persecuted in England for their beliefs

Founding Plymouth Colony

  • 1608: group of Separatists move to the Netherlandsbut left several years later because they did not want their children to adopt Dutch customs

  • A group of merchants formed a joint-stock company and got land from the Virginia Company

  • 1620: 35 Puritans and 66 other settlers left on the Mayflower under the leadership of William Bradford

  • They were headed to the Hudson River but were blown off course and landed at Cape Cod

  • While on board, the 41 men signed the Mayflower Compact: created a government chosen by the consent of the governed and they would obey all laws made for the good of the group

  • Half of the group died in the first winter, the rest survived with aid from the Wampanoag Indians (especially Squanto)

  • The next year was so successful, the Pilgrims held a feast for their neighbors that we now commemorate as Thanksgiving

  • Bradford continued to serve as governor until his death in 16578

Dissent among the puritans
Dissent Among the Puritans

“A City Upon A Hill”

  • Success at Plymouth encouraged thousands of Puritans to move to New England

  • After getting funding from the Massachusetts Bay Company, they chose John Winthrop as their leader

  • They hoped to create a haven and example of Puritan living, what they called “a city upon a hill”

  • 11 ships and 700 people arrived in America in 1630 and grew quickly, establishing towns in Boston, Salem, and Concord

  • The Company created the Massachusetts General Court which had the ability to elect officers and make laws

  • Each town elected members to the court, which elected a council headed by Winthrop

  • Success led to the Great Migration: 20,000 English settlers arrive in New England between 1620 and 1643


  • Puritans were not tolerant of beliefs that differed from Church cannon

  • Society and government were closely linked to the church (attendance at church was mandatory, hard work was stressed)

  • Dissenters either voluntarily left, or were forced to leave the colony

  • Thomas Hooker- wanted government ‘chosen by all’ leaves to form Connecticut

  • 1639 they write the 1st written constitution: Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (gave voting rights to all free men, not just church members)

Rhode Island and New Hampshire

  • Roger Williams believed in religious tolerance (even for Jews) and wanted separation of church and state

  • he also believe the colony should pay the Native Americans for the land they settled on

  • He purchases land from the Narragansett Indians and forms a colony in Providence, Rhode Island

  • Anne Hutchinson causes an uproar when she claims people can read and understand the Bible for themselves without the input of a minister

  • She was banished and went to Rhode Island

  • Her brother-in-law left Massachusetts in 1679 to found a colony in modern New Hampshire; it was a royal colony: under the control of the king

Witchcraft Trials in Salem

  • 1692 girls in Salem Village begin acting strangely and claim they were bewitched

  • Belief in witchcraft was common in the 1600s

  • Hysteria gripped the colony and eventually hundreds of people were arrested and 19 were executed as witches

  • Eventually the trials were condemned and remaining prisoners were set free

Life in new england
Life in New England

Education and Government

  • Puritans wanted their children to be able to read the Bible and established the first public schools in America

  • They also established the first colleges in New England: Harvard and Yale

  • Starting in the late 1600s, colonies most colonies were converted to royal colonies under the control of the English king

  • The town, with its school and meeting house, was the center of life in New England colonies

  • Town government was most relevant to people’s lives

  • At town meetings church members and land owners were allowed to vote for selectmen and delegates and speak about issues like taxes and roads

Relations with Native Americans

  • As colonies expanded, they had increasing conflict with Native Americans

  • As colonies became more self-sufficient, they were less likely to try to have good relations with surrounding tribes

  • Many Puritans viewed Natives as heathens that needed to be driven out or killed

  • 1637: Pequot War: Pequot in Connecticut are slaughtered by settlers and their Narragansett & Mohegan allies over trade with the Dutch

  • 1675: King Philip’s War: Native Americans led by Metacomet (or King Philip) attack colonial towns

  • Over 600 on both sides died and the tribe was all but wiped out

Chapter 2 section 4 the middle and southern colonies
Chapter 2 Section 4: The Middle and Southern Colonies

Main Idea: Events in England during and after the English Civil War led to a new wave of colonization along the Atlantic coast south of New England.

A new era of colonization
A New Era of Colonization

Charles II and the Restoration

  • In order to pay back his supporters in the Civil War, King Charles II gave land grants in the new world called proprietary colonies (there were 4:N Pennsylvania, Carolina, New York and New Jersey)

  • These colonies were not ruled by investors or colonial legislators, but by their Lords Proprietors

  • Son of a supporter, William Penn forms Pennsylvania as a haven for Quakers and others suffering persecution

New Netherland becomes New York

  • Charles gives land to his brother James, Duke of York, ignoring an existing Dutch colony

  • After briefly struggling for control, England pushed out the Dutch in 1674

  • New York was a very diverse colony with English, Dutch, Scandinavian, German, and French settlers

  • The Duke later gave part of his land to two proprietors who named their colony New Jersey

  • After disputes over land titles, both New York and New Jersey became royal colonies in the early 1700s

New southern colonies
New Southern Colonies

The Carolinas

  • 8 men were granted a charter that made them co-owners of Carolina (Latin for Charles)

  • Settlement was slow and some of the men gave up their claims

  • Eventually settlers arrived, but the Northern and Southern parts developed very differently

  • The Southern part had large plantations and ports like Charles Town; the North was dominated by small farmers and had no harbor

  • 1729: the proprietors sold their land to the crown and the king created two colonies: North Carolina and South Carolina


  • Georgia is created as a buffer zone between the Carolinas and Spanish-Florida

  • James Oglethorpe proposed making Georgia a colony for those thrown into debtors prison in England

  • he received a charter from King George II and founded Georgia in 1732 (it became a royal colony in 1751)

  • Originally the colony had strict rules about slavery, land ownership, and personal behavior, but they were gradually relaxed

Quakers settle pennsylvania the founding of maryland
Quakers Settle Pennsylvania/ The Founding of Maryland

The Quakers

  • The king wanted to get rid of the Quakers, who were unpopular in England

  • He encouraged Quakers to migrate to Pennsylvania

  • They believed in direct communication with God and had not ministers

  • They believed in equality of all men and women and were pacifists (refused to fight)

  • Because of its tolerance and wide adverting, thousands came from Germany and Scandinavia


  • 1638: small group of Swedish immigrants settle near modern Wilmington, DE but were overrun by the Dutch in 1655 and the English after that

  • William Penn later bought land from the Duke of York to give water passage to the Atlantic for Pennsylvania


  • George Calvert, Lord Baltimore received land from the king to create a haven for Catholics that his son named Maryland

  • 1649: Maryland’s colonial assembly passes the Toleration Act protecting the rights of all Christians to practice their religion