Diagnosing Endocrine Problems - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Diagnosing Endocrine Problems

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  1. Diagnosing Endocrine Problems Physiology of Disease and Treatments

  2. Addison’s Disease • Cause • Cortex portion of adrenal gland underactive • Symptoms • Low blood sugar, low blood Na+, loss of water, tiredness, and yellowing of the skin • Use of cortisone

  3. Myxedema • Cause • Occurs in Adults • Thyroid gland is underactive • Decreases the production of thyroxin • Symptoms • Lowered metabolism, changes in skin texture, puffiness of the face, a decrease in mental abilities • Treatment • Use of thyroid extract

  4. Myxedema

  5. Acromegaly • Cause • The pituitary gland over secretes human growth hormone in adults • Symptoms • Bones thicken, especially in the hands, the feet, and the face • Treatment • No available treatment

  6. Cretinism • Cause • Little to no thyroxin is produced from birth • Symptoms • In infants, face swells, lips become large, and tongue becomes thick • Physical and mental growth is stunted • Treatment • Use of thyroid extract

  7. Dwarfism • Cause • Pituitary gland under secretes human growth hormone • Symptoms • Stunted growth • Relative size of body parts is normal • Treatments • Use of growth hormone before skeletal growth is completed

  8. Hypoglycemia • Causes • Pancreas produces too much insulin • Symptoms • Low blood sugar levels, dizziness, intense hunger, and weakness • Treatment • Control of blood sugar by diet

  9. Hyperthyroidism • Causes • Thyroid is overactive, producing too much thyroxin • Symptoms • High metabolic rate, excitability, rapid speech, anxiety, increased appetite, and weight loss • Treatment • Medication to stop production of thyroxin; surgery if thyroid is enlarged

  10. Hypothyroidism • Cause • Thyroid is underactive, producing too little thyroxin • Symptoms • Low metabolic rate, dry skin, reduced alertness, and weight gain • Treatment • Use of thyroid extract

  11. Diabetes Mellitus • Causes • Little or no insulin is produced by the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas • Symptoms • Uncontrolled blood sugar levels, excessive urination, weakness, excessive appetite, and weight loss • Treatment • Careful planning of diet • Exercise • Regular injections of insulin

  12. Diabetes insipidus • Cause • Posterior lobe of pituitary gland is underactive, producing too little vasopressin • Very uncommon • Due to head injury or tumor • Symptoms • Excessive thirst and increased urination • Kidney’s unable to conserve water • Treatments • Careful planning of diet

  13. Complete the case studies on the back!

  14. BellworkMatching: They may have more than one answer. TSH FSH ADH OT GH LH Luteinizing hormone Labor contractions, milk ejection Stimulates body cell division Thyroid stimulating hormone Oxytocin Antidiuretic Hormone Ovulation, formation of corpus luteum Follicle stimulating hormone Reabsorption of water, elevation of blood pressure and volume Estrogen secretion, sperm maturation Secretion of thyroid hormones Promotes long bone growth

  15. Outline for Endocrine Test • Performance enhancing drugs • EPO, testosterone, blood doping, GH, steroids, • Effects as a performance enhancing drug • Possible side effects of drugs • Label organs/glands of endocrine system • Hypothalamus, pineal, pituitary gland, parathyroid, thyroid, thymus, pancreas, adrenal, ovaries, testes • Hormones: actions/functions and site of production • Aldoesterone, cortisol, epinephrine, GnRH, estrogen, insulin, glucagon, PTH, melatonin, ADH, oxytocin, FSH, LH, testosterone, thymosin, cacitonin, HCG