“The Crimson Prairie…”Murder, thievery, and oppression – the cost of progress Wednesday Nov. 16, 2011 U.S. History
Spark??? • A. “How could existence go on…If life is to thrive and endure, it must at least have something to hide behind.” • B. “I was born upon the prairie, where the wind blew free and there was nothing to break the light of the sun.” • Both authors identify a certainCHARACTERISTICof the plains-but have different views on it. What is that quality and what are their views? • Which of these two views on the Great Plains has a positive outlook on the area? Which one is negative? What evidence is there to support your answers? • To what groups of people do you think each speaker belongs?
Agenda • Spark ??? • Business Items • Rapid fire share – then - Turn in journal and Railroads • Journals 3, 4, and 5 due next Tuesday • I am out on Friday • Culture Clash – N.A. v. White Euros
Objectives 1. Evaluate the fundamental cultural differences between USA (WASP) culture and Native American culture 2. Analyze the effect of federal government policies towards Native Americans 3. Evaluate the character of the Indian Wars and find out what the battles were like 4. Interpret changes that occurred in federal Indian policies by 1900
Importance of the Railroad/MIning • Railroad seen as main component of “taming of the west” • Desolate” country • Towns, communication, interconnection, jobs for immigrants • Mining and other PUSH/ PULL factors begin to FILL UP the West • Guess who they run into? • 13th, 14th, 15th Amendments – remember who is NOT included
Start a New set of Notes • Title it: Crimson Prairie: Native Americans and the West
In pairs Using your book, p. 584, briefly discuss the followingquestions with someone near you… • Life in Transition: Name 2 “things” the Europeans introduced to the Plains People that greatly impacted their lives. • Using what you read, and what you can infer, how did the horse impact and change Native American culture? • Why was the Buffalo so important to the Native Americans?
Add to notes • Fort Laramie Treaty – p. 585 • Sand Creek Massacre – p. 586 • Buffalo Soldiers – p. 586
Conquest of the Native Americans:Main Ideas of Tribal Culture Main Ideas of Tribal Culture • Native American Society-family oriented • Rights of Passage-name sake, “earning stripes” • Religion-typically polytheistic, shamanism • Sun Dance, later the Ghost Dance • The Horse-nomadic and war-like • Euros show – disease and oppressive violence • 8-25 million down to about 350,000 by 1860
Native Americans and White Settlers: Culture Clash • Make a massive T-chart – • Native Americans on one side, White settlers on the other • There will be 3 categories
Culture Clash: Resources and Purpose of the Land USA The West is an untapped resource that must be settled-wilderness is an obstacle that must be conquered and industrialized • Fencing • Destruction of the buffalo Native American The land was a divine gift. People should use the land but must also live with it. • Land ownership is a partnership • Use every piece of the buffalo
Culture Clash: Land Use USA • West could be used to createfarms, extract resources, supply man’s needs • Settlement-towns, stay in one place and build • Use it up – God has given it to man to use Native American • Follow the herds. Live in small villages. • Nomadic lifestyle • Life is shared with earth, it does exist FOR humans • Use only as necessary – no excess
Culture Clash: Government and Social Organization USA • United States are one and indivisible with a central government • One central gov. (after Civil War!!) • Clear hierarchy, structure Native American • Indian cultures were separate and specific to distinct tribes. • Not organized together,littleauthority outside immediate family • Lack of space and competition for resources led to war
Native Americans and White Settlers: Culture Clash Pair-Share: Describe Attitudes toward each category
Conquest of the Native Americans Closing of the Frontier • Displacement = more and more aggression • Scissors-from Pacific to Miss river whites take all land • Treaty of Fort Laramie-attempted peace, miscalculation of N.A. culture • Bureau of Indian Affairs-agency set up to “take care of Indians”- corruption, rotten food, tattered clothes, huge salaries, violated treaties, slaughtered buffalo
Conquest of the Native Americans Beginning of the Indian Wars • Civil War uprising-Sioux in Minn-murder about 200 settlers-Fed troops come in & hang 40 Sioux • Sand Creek Massacre- 1864 S.C. Colorado • Col. Chivington leads militia into S.C. to “pacify natives” • Slaughter 400 innocent people (women/children) • Torture, rape, smashing babies, mutilation
Conquest of the Native Americans Vicious Cycle • Revenge- cruelty = more cruelty • Bozeman Trail- to Montana gold fields-Sioux attempt to stop it • William Fetterman- commander of unit-Sioux ambush and kill 81soldiers-no survivors • Temporary victory for natives-B.T. abandoned
Preview of things to come • Battle of Little Bighorn • “Custer’s Last Stand” • Nez Perce and Chief Joseph • Our chiefs are killed…the old men are all dead…the little children are freezing to death…I want to have time to look for my children…Hear me my chiefs. My heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands I will fight no more forever…” • Reservations and final betrayals • Indian schools for assimilation – Carlisle, Pennsylvania • Dusty lands in Kansas, Oklahoma, Arizona etc.