Mesopotamia – The Fertile Crescent. “Land Between the Rivers – “ Tigris and Euphrates ”. BUT FIRST, in order for there to be a society at all…. The Agricultural Revolution had to take place Transition from hunting and gathering to farming and domesticating animals.
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Mesopotamia – The Fertile Crescent “Land Between the Rivers – “Tigris and Euphrates”
BUT FIRST, in order for there to be a society at all… • The Agricultural Revolution had to take place • Transition from hunting and gathering to farming and domesticating animals. • What happens to people in terms of location? What about population wise?
Geography • Life for all humans is a battle of resources. • In ancient times, resources were more basic. • Today resources are mostly based around $$$.
Where do people gather? • (Write the underlined parts across from Neolithic Rev. and Civilization). • People settle in RIVER VALLEYS • Why? • Flooding = silt = food
Geography • Geography always affects where and how people lived in history. • What does this structure tell us about the geography of Mesopotamia?
Label: Use Page 38 • Tigris River • Euphrates River • Fertile Crescent • Sumer • The city of Ur
What happens when people group together? • Civilizations form. • Cities, governments, economies, religion, social structure (upper class + lower class), writing and intellectual knowledge, and artistic activity.
Mesopotamian Civilization • Starts in Sumer (Mesopotamia = Sumer) • Achievements: • Wheel • Irrigation • Library • Why would books be important to a culture or civilization?
Who ruled? • Monarchs, or rule by one person.
Warfare • Constant war brought many cultures into contact. • Cultural diffusion – spreading of ideas and cultures between groups of people.
Mesopotamian City-States • Starts in Sumer (Mesopotamia = Sumer) • Walled Cities • Traded with Egypt and others
Religion • Ziggurats built – people devoted much of their wealth to building these temples. • Why? • Priests and priestesses held power, monarchs ruled as gods – Theocracy • Also, Mesopotamians were polytheistic, with the lone exception of the Hebrews.
Empires • Empires were created by rulers wanting more resources or land. • Sargon = first empire in history in 2340 BC.
Society/Writing • Society was patriarchal – Men are rulers. Women are below men in the social order.
Writing • Cuneiform
Writing • Intellectual and artistic achievements: • Wheel • Chariots • Irrigation systems • Library • Why would books be important to a culture?
Check for understanding • Who created the first empire in world history? • What type religion was found in Mesopotamia? • Name one example of cultural diffusion in Mesopotamia. • What is the most interesting part of Mesopotamian culture to you? Why?
Current Events? • Good ideas?