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  1. CULTURE OF FRANCE Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/1




  5. EDUCATION Modern French education begins at the end of the 19th century. Jules Ferry, Minister of Public Instruction in the 1880’s, is the founder of the modern Republican school (l'école républicaine). This schoolis free of charge, compulsory from 6 to 16 “ laïque” meaning separate from the church. Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/5

  6. EDUCATION The French educational system is divided into three stages: primary education (enseignement primaire); secondary education (enseignement secondaire); tertiary or college education (enseignement supérieur) Primary and secondary education is predominantly public (private schools also exist) Tertiary education has both public and private elements. Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/6

  7. EDUCATION All educational programs are regulated by the Ministry of National Education The teachers in public primary and secondary schools are all state civil servants, making the “ministère” the largest employer in the country. At the primary and secondary levels, the curricula is the same for all French students in a given grade, in public and private institutions. Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/7

  8. RELIGION Traditionally, France is a predominantly Roman Catholic country. However, public holidays are still largely traditional Catholic holidays. The concept of laïcité ( the 1905 law of separation of Church and State), is a balance between the rights of religious people and the neutrality of public institutions with respect to religious matters. Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/8

  9. RELIGION The French consider religion a private matter, and any ostentatious display is generally out-of-place. The concept of laïcité is currently a core concept in the French constitution, whose Article 1 formally states that France is a secular republic ("La France est une République, une, indivisible, laïque et sociale."). French political leaders are supposed to be neutral with respect to religion and to keep a certain reserve about their belief. Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/9

  10. RELIGION Following from the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, France guarantees freedom of religion as a constitutional right. The 1905 law instituted the separation of Church and State and prohibited the government from recognising, salarying or subsidising any religion. Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/10

  11. RELIGION STATISTICS Roman Catholic 83-88%, Muslim 5-10% Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%, unaffiliated 4% 15 percent of French citizens regularly attend religious services, compared to 10 percent of UK citizens and 57 percent of American citizens. Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/11

  12. ECONOMY The 5th largest economy in the world The 3rd largest in Europe after Germany and the United Kingdom Thanks to - substantial agricultural resources, - a large industrial base, - a highly skilled work force - a dynamic services sector (72% of the economic activity in 1997 / nearly all job creation in recent years.) Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/12

  13. ECONOMY AGRICULTURE France is the world's 6th largest agricultural producer. France is the European Union's leading agricultural producer. Main Agricultural products : wheat, cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, dairy products, pork, poultry, beef, fruits, vegetables, and wine. The 2nd largest agricultural exporter, after the United States (the destination of 70% of its exports areother EU member states) Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/13

  14. ECONOMY INDUSTRY After the Second World War, France embarked on an ambitious and very successful program of modernization, under state impulse. This program involved the state control of a minority of the industry, such as transportation, energy and telecommunication infrastructures. In the 60’s Charles de Gaule strongly encouraged the delocalisation of skills (IAS, SUPAERO, ENAC were delocalised at that time). Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/14

  15. ECONOMY INDUSTRY Despite significant reform and privatization over the past 15 years, the government continues to control a large share of economic activity. The government continues to own shares in corporations in a range of sectors including : banking, energy production and distribution, automobiles, transportation, and telecommunications. France has been very successful in developing dynamic telecommunications, aerospace, and weapons sectors. Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/15

  16. ECONOMY THE MAIN INDUSTRIES Building engeneering Machinery Chemicals Pharmaceutics Automobiles Metallurgy Aeronautics and space Electronics Fashion (textiles)and luxury Food processing Tourism Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/16

  17. ECONOMY WEAPONS INDUSTRY France is one of the biggest arms manufacturers (warships, guns, nuclear weapons and equipment ) and the 3rd exporter in the world. Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/17

  18. ECONOMY France’s foreign trade in civilian goods by region (billions of euros, 2002 data) TRADE France is the 2nd largest trading nation in western Europe. Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/18

  19. ECONOMY TOURISM As France is the most visitedcountry in the world, tourism is a significant contributor to the French Economy. The touristic infrastructures of France have been largely developed in the 60’s and today France’s got a high quality of touristic services, including some of the world's most extensive ski trails. Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/19

  20. ECONOMY ENERGY With virtually no domestic oil production, France has relied heavily on the development of nuclear power, which now accounts for about 80% of the country's electricity production. It also has developed at a large scale nuclear waste reprocessing facilities (including those of other countries). Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/20


  22. FRENCH POLITICS Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/22

  23. PRESIDENT OF REPUBLIC The Head of State is elected for a five-year term by direct universal suffrage. Jacques Chirac became the fifth President of the Fifth Republic on 7 May 1995 and was re-elected on 5 May 2002 He - appoints the Prime Minister - appoints the other members of the Government. - presides over the Council of Ministers, - promulgates Acts of Parliament and is Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. - may dissolve the National Assembly and in an emergency exercise special powers. Elysée palace (Paris) Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/23

  24. Under the direction of the Prime Minister, the government sets national policy and carries it out. It is answerable to Parliament. The Prime Minister directs the operation of the government and ensures the implementation of legislation. Dominique de Villepin is the current Prime Minister. PRIME MINISTER AND GOVERNMENT Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/24

  25. Parliament comprises two assemblies : The Senate, elected since 2003 for a six-year term, by indirect universal suffrage, and renewed by half every three years. The National Assembly, whose members (deputies) are elected by direct universal suffrage for a five-year term. The most recent general election was held in June 2002. PARLIAMENT The Sénat The National Assembly (Paris) Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/25

  26. Modern French politics remain characterized by a Left/Right division of the country even though the border between the two has been recently blurred. FRENCH POLITICS Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/26

  27. NATIONAL ANTHEM AND MOTTO The national anthem is the Marseillaise; it became the national anthem on 14 July 1795. The motto of the French Republic is "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity". Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/27

  28. THE FRENCH FLAG The white colour, symbolizes royalty and the red and blue colours, the cockade of the Paris National Guard. The tricolour is the official standard of the French Republic. Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/28

  29. THE SOCIAL STRUCTURES Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/29

  30. SOCIAL WELFARE France has one of the most effective social security systems in the world. It covers basic needs such as healthcare, unemployment benefits, minimum social benefits, family policy and retirement pensions. The system is based on the principle of national solidarity. Georges-Pompidou European hospital in Paris. Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/30

  31. Social welfare expenses on the gross national product of the Europeans countries (%) • France on the firsts places Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/31

  32. 67% of total social security spending comes from employers and employees’ contributions and 20% from taxes. Social security expenditure has increased two and a half times as fast as the gross national product since 1945. The increase stems from the larger numbers of pensioners and higher pensions. SOCIAL WELFARE Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/32

  33. SOCIAL WELFARE • Another cause is the increase in healthcare expenditure, accounting for 34.8% of the total, with the introduction of universal health coverage (CMU), longer life expectancy and advances in medical treatments. Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/33

  34. social security system covers 70% of medical care and goods, with an increasing proportion being met by households and insurance companies. A major programme of reform was instituted in 2004 to balance the accounts of the health insurance branch of the Social Security system. SOCIAL WELFARE Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/34

  35. Basic guaranteed income : RMI (Revenu Minimum d’Insertion) SOCIAL WELFARE • Basic guaranteed income was introduced in 1989 with the aim of providing the least well-off with minimum resources and helping them to get off welfare and rejoin the labour force and society. • At present, approximately one million people are receiving basic guaranteed income. Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/35

  36. Salaries WORKING Salary levels are fixed by agreement between employer and employee. Most companies make extra salary payments in one (or both) of two months (usually December for Christmas and June for Summer). In this case, these extra salaries (called 13th and 14th month's salary) are included in total amount of the annual gross salary. Profit sharing schemes and bonuses bases on productivity or performance are becoming more common in France. Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/36

  37. WORKING Salaries are usually paid a few days before the end of each month. As an employee, you will normally receive your salary net of deductions (salaire net) for: Compulsory Social Security Chargees Optional charges: such as mutual insurance contributions, pension contributions or life insurance Obligatory contributions will be around 20-25% of your gross salary. Your salary payments do not have income tax deducted. You make a tax declaration and pay your income tax. Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/37

  38. WORKING • Minimum Salary The guaranteed minimum hourly wage is called the SMIC (Salaire Minimum Interprofessionnel de Croissance). An employee cannot legally be paid less then this level. The gross SMIC is €7.19, from which are taken taxes and social security charges (at this wage level, approximately 23%). The SMIC is reviewed annually on the 1st July. Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/38

  39. Minimum wage in various countries (euros) Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/39

  40. WORKING • Working hours The legal working hours (Temps de travail) is fixed at 35 hours per week. The 35-hour rule applies to all employees except those with special working conditions 35 hours are not a compulsory maximum for a week's work, but a reference point for the calculation of overtime as all supplementary hours working must be remunerated. Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/40

  41. WORKING • The working week is generally Monday to Friday. • Working hours are generally from 8:30-9:30 to 17:30-19:00. There is usually a break for lunch (between 12:00 and 14:00) • The introduction of the 35-hour week has led many companies to be a lot more flexible about working hours. Some have implemented an 8-hour/day schedule with Friday afternoon off, whereas others make 10:00-16:00 standardised working time and leave individuals to organise the rest of their time. Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/41

  42. Annual leave (Congés annuels) WORKING Salaries have 5 full weeks of vacation a year which may be taken either during a specified period or in agreement with the employer Traditionally, holidays are taken in July and August. In France August is 'sacred' and the country practically comes to a halt. Some companies officially close. Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/42

  43. WORKING • In some companies, the adoption of the 35-hour week was managed by introducing longer vacations, which are often referred to as RTT (Réduction du temps de travail). This could be quite significant (e.g. up to 15 days of leave a year!) but the company usually decides when these days can/must be taken. Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/43

  44. Maternity leave (Congé de maternité) WORKING All mothers have the right to a minimum of sixteen weeks of paid maternity leave. During maternity leave, employees receive payments from the social security system. Most companies have also collective agreements (conventions collectives) concerning continuing payment of the salary by the employer during the period of maternity leave. Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/44

  45. Paternity leave (Congé de paternité) WORKING All new fathers have the right to paternity leave of 11 days (18 days for twins or more!) Leave must be taken on consecutive days within four months of the birth. Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/45

  46. WORKING • Sick leave (Arrêt de travail pour maladie) A doctor may prescribe sick leave for an employee by issuing a sick leave form (un avis d'arrêt de travail). • Employees on sick leave are obliged: • to stop working while receiving sickness benefits • to comply with authorised times for leaving the house • to ask for authorisation if wishing to stay in a different residence Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/46

  47. WORKING • Unemployment insurance ( Assurance Chômage) • Financed by employers (80%) and employees (20 %). (ASSEDIC) • To receive this unemployment benefit, one has to be less than 65 years old and to have worked 520 hours (as a wage earner) during the twelve last months. • According to their age, unemployed earn, every month, 40.25% or 30% of their last monthly wage over periods of different lengths and the benefit cannot be less than a minimum amount at the beginning Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/47

  48. WORKING • Public holidays (Jours fériés) There are eleven national public holidays in France: 1 January, New Year's Day (Nouvel an, Jour de l'An)Easter Monday in March or April (Lundi de Pâques)1 May, Labour Day (Fête de travail)8 May, Victory Day - End of Second World War 1945 (Fête de la liberation)Ascension Thursday, the sixth Thursday after Easter, usually in May (Ascension)Whit Monday (Pentecost) , the Second Monday after Ascension, in May or June (Pentecôte)14 July, Bastille Day (Fête Nationale)15 August, Assumption (Assomption)1 November, All Saints' Day (Toussaint)11 November, Armistice 1918 Day (Fête de l'Armistice)25 December, Christmas Day (Noël) Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/48

  49. FRENCH ARTS Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/49

  50. The prehistoric period is known for paleolithic cave paintings. There are around 130 caves around the Pyrenees, with the most famous of the caves being Lascaux FRENCH PAINTINGS Cave paintings at Lascaux Horses' Heads in the Chauvet Cave  Réf.: IAS/2006/M1/50