The Middle Ages 400-14005th to the 15th Centuries Three Periods Early Middle Ages 500-1000 High Middle Ages 1000-1250 Late Middle Ages 1250-1500
The Beginning…Early Middle Ages • Decline of Roman Empire • Rise of Northern Europe • New forms of government • Heavy “Romanization” (religion, language, laws, architecture, government) • Latin- “medium aevum” means “middle age” and is source of English word “medieval”
Early Middle Ages • Dark Ages (500 CE- 1000 CE)- scholars named this as a time when the forces of darkness (barbarians) overwhelmed the forces of light (Romans) • Rise of influence of Barbariansas Roman Emperors had granted barbarian mercenaries land with the Roman Empire in return for military service and it was these barbarians who eventually became the new rulers
Warriors and Warbands in the West • Period of change in Western Europe as barbarians were migrating in to areas given up by Romans • As more barbarians moved westward, other tribes were forced to move • Groups categorized by languages and little else • Celtic: Gauls, Britons, Bretons • Germanic: Goths, Frank, Vandals, Saxons • Slavic: Wends
Expanding Influence of the Church • Christian Church has become an important political, economic, spiritual and cultural force in Europe • Leading officials of Church were the Pope and Patriarch • Banning of heresy (holding beliefs that contradict the official religion) • Conversion by force • Eventually in 11th Century, Church split into two independent branches Eastern Orthodox (Greek) based in Constantinople and Roman Catholic in Rome
The Medieval Catholic Church • Filled the power vacuum left from the collapse of the classical world. • Monasticism: • St. Benedict – Benedictine Rule of poverty, chastity, and obedience. • Provided schools for the children of the upper class. • Inns, Hospitals, Refuge in times of war. • Libraries & Scriptoriato copy books and Illuminate manuscripts. • Monks Missionaries to the barbarians. [St. Patrick, St. Boniface]
Slaves and Serfs • Slaves made up of conquered peoples • Some treated harshly, while other were treated fairly • Rural slaves became serfs, who worked the land and provided labour for owner (in return from protection) • Set up for system of feudalism
Feudalism • Increasing violence and lawless countryside • Weak turn to the strong for protection, strong want something from the weak • Feudalism= relationship between those ranked in a chain of association (kings, vassals, lords, knights, serfs) • Feudalism worked because of the notion of mutual obligation, or voluntary co-operation from serf to noble • A political, economic, and social system based on loyalty and military service Key terms • Fief = land given by a lord in return for a vassal’s military service and oath of loyalty • Serfs= aka villeins or common peasants who worked the Lord’s land • Tithe= tax that serfs paid (tax or rent) • Corvee= condition of unpaid labor by serfs (maintaining roads or ditches on a manor)
The Road to Knighthood KNIGHT SQUIRE PAGE
Chivalry: A Code of Honor and Behavior • There was not an authentic Medieval Code of Chivalry as such - it was a moral system which went beyond rules of combat and introduced the concept of Chivalrous conduct - qualities idealized by knighthood, such as bravery, courtesy, honor, and gallantry toward women. • The Medieval Code of Chivalry was understood by all but a Code of Chivalry was documented in The Song of Roland in the early Medieval period of William the Conqueror. • It describes the 8th century Knights and battles of the Emperor Charlemagne and has been described as Charlemagne's Code of Chivalry. • The idea of the Code of Chivalry were emphasized by the oaths that were sworn in Knighthood ceremonies. • These sacred oaths were combined with the ideals of chivalry and with strict rules of etiquette and conduct. • The idea and ideals of a Medieval Code of Chivalry was publisized in the poems, ballads, writings and literary works of Medieval authors.
Birth of Modern Languages • Development of Middle Ages • New languages born through migration, resettlement, conflict and changes • Old English (Anglo Saxon) began to incorporate words borrowed from Latin and Old French, Old German and Old Norse • Roots of contemporary Spanish, Italian and other Romance languages
William the Conqueror: Battle of Hastings, 1066 William, the Duke of Normandy, was the cousin of Edward, the King of England. When Edward died without children in 1066, the throne was given to Harold Godwinson, an English earl. But William claimed that before his death, Edward had promised the throne to him. William therefore planned to assume his role as heir and take up the throne. • William squashed and buried any thought of the throne going to Harold on October 14th, 1066. • He landed 7000 troops and advanced out of the beach of Pevensey, doing most of this while Harold was completely unaware. • William's Army decisively defeated the Saxon Army. • In 10 hours time he rendered any Saxon retaliation virtually impossible. • South and Southeastern England were shortly torched and destroyed at William's command. • Nothing remained but a trail of horses and human corpses. • Saxon peoples of England struggled for 21 years against William in futile attempts at rebellion.
William’s Contributions to England • Rule of Law Established on his throne where William was the absolute authority • New Language and Culture: French • Introduction of Feudal System in England • Anglo-Saxon lands and Dominance given to Norman Lords. • Doomsday Book
Doomsday Book To further extend his grip on England, William I ordered that a book be made containing information on who owned what throughout the country. This book would also tell him who owed him what in tax and because the information was on record, nobody could dispute or argue against a tax demand. This is why the book brought doom and gloom to the people of England - hence "Domesday Book". The decision of what someone owed was final - rather like Judgement Day when your soul was judged for Heaven or Hell.
Evolution of England’s Political System • Henry I: • William’s son. • Set up a Court System. • Exchequer Dept. of Royal Finances. • Henry II: • Established the principle of common law throughout the kingdom. • Grand jury. • Trial by jury.
Magna Carta, 1215 • King John I • Runnymeade • “Great Charter” • Monarchs were not above the law. • Kings had to consult a council of advisors. • Kings could not tax arbitrarily.
The Beginnings of the British Parliament • Great Council: • Middle Class Merchants, Townspeople [burgesses in Eng., bourgeoisie in Fr.,burghersin Ger.] were added at the end of the 13c. • Eventually called Parliament. • By 1400, two chambers evolved: • House of Lords Nobles & Clergy. • House of Commons Knights andBurgesses.
Famous Oxford Scholars • Roger Bacon, Philosopher / Franciscan Friar • Thomas Bradwardine, Archbishop of Canterbury • Simon Bredon, mathematician • William of Ockham, philosopher and theologian • Duns Scotus, philosopher and theologian • John Wyclif (Wycliffe), religious reformer
Medieval Guilds Guild Hall • Commercial Monopoly: • Controlled membershipapprentice journeyman master craftsman • Controlled quality of the product [masterpiece]. • Controlled prices
New Ideas and Culture • Effects of Crusades • Guild and communes • Towns, cities and manors • New thinkers (Thomas Aquinas) and writers • Creation of universities • New art and architecture (gothic, castles) • Knighthood and chivalry • Courtly entertainment (fables, playwrights)
Late Middle Ages Black Death A devastating worldwide pandemic that first struck Europe in the mid 14th century Killed about a third of Europe’s population, an estimated 34 million people.
The Bubonic Plague • Called “black death” because of striking symptom of the disease, in which sufferers' skin would blacken due to hemorrhages under the skin • Spread by fleas and rats • painful lymph node swellings called buboes • buboes in the groin and armpits, which ooze pus and blood. • damage to the skin and underlying tissue until they were covered in dark blotches • Most victims died within four to seven days after infection EFFECTS • Caused massive depopulation and change in social structure • Weakened influence of Church • Originated in Asia but was blamed on Jews and lepers
100 Years War – 1337-1453 • Fighting started in the Hundred Years' War because the Kings of England - descendants of William the Conqueror who still spoke French -wanted to rule France as well. France was temptingly weak and divided. • It began with the English King already ruling a large part of France it ended with him ruling hardly any, but with what is now Nord - Pas de Calais split off under foreign rule for several centuries.
Battle of Bosworth Field - End of the Middle Ages • 22 August 1485 • House of Lancaster led by Henry Tudor Earl of Richmond • House of York led by Richard III • Henry became first monarch of the Tudor dynasty in England • Last Charge of Mounted Knights in battle • Last monarch, Richard III, to die in battle, betrayed by Sir William Stanley and 4000 of his retainers as he led a charge of 1000 men and Knights onto Henry’s entourage. • King Henry was crowned nearby on Crown Hill
Thomas a Becket • Chancellor to King Henry II at the age of 36. • Helped Henry II to advance reform in England. • Also served as councilor and military commander in expeditions to France. • Assumed the post of Archbishop to the see of Canterbury on Sunday, 3 June, 1162. • After his ascension, he became very religious. • Disagreement emerged between them over what Henry II called “an over-powerful church.” • Money and property constituted the bulk of the disagreement between he and the king. • On 13 October, 1164 he fled England in fear of his life. Negotiations between the King, the Pope, and the Archbishop dragged on for four years as to his fate. • On 1 December, 1170, he returned to England. • On 20 December, 1170 he was murdered by four French knights who came seeking the absolution of two bishops that Becket had brought back with him from France. • The pope promulgated the bull of canonization, little more than two years after his martyrdom, 21 February, 1173. • On 12 July, 1174, Henry II did public penance, and was scourged at the archbishop’s tomb. An immense number of miracles were worked, and for the rest of the Middle Ages the shrine of St. Thomas of Canterbury was one of the wealthiest and most famous in Europe.
Mystery Plays • Evolved and were performed from the 10th to the 16th centuries until the development of professional theater. • Performed in Cycles – over three days 48 plays • Mostly Old Testament High Points • Exciting, Dynamic Dramas • Although Scriptural Stories performed in the present moment: example – Noah is portrayed as someone who lives down the street from you. • A method to teach scripture to the unlearned. • Accessible to well-read and common people. • Cross-Cultural Audience • Living Theater, lively humor, colloquial language, 9 line stanza, aaaabcccb rhyme scheme • Miracle Plays • Miracle plays, or Saint's plays, are now distinguished from mystery plays as they specifically re-enacted miraculous interventions by the saints, particularly St. Nicholas or St. Mary, into the lives of ordinary people, rather than biblical events • However, both of these terms are more commonly used by modern scholars than they were by medieval people, who used a wide variety of terminology to refer to their dramatic performances
Romance • "Romance" originally referred not to a specific literary genre but to the vernacular French language which was called romanz (meaning that it was derived from the language spoken by the Romans, i.e. Latin). French and other languages derived from Latin, such as Spanish, Italian and Portuguese, are still referred to as “Romance Languages” today. • In the 12th Century, literature which was written down in the French vernacular was referred to as "romance" to distinguish it from "real" literature, which was invariably written in Latin. • Gradually, the term "romance" began to refer not to any narrative written in the French vernacular, but to the specific sort of narrative literature that was most popular among the French-speaking court audiences of France and Anglo-Saxon England: stories of the chivalric adventures of knights and their ladies, often set at the court of King Arthur. • Often called Chivalric Romance • A style of heroic prose or verse narrative. • Popular in the aristocratic class of the High Middle Ages, originating specifically in the French Aristocracy. • Fanciful stories of a heroic Knight on a quest. • Reworked legends, fairy tales, and history to suit the needs of creating a narrative that suited the audience’s taste. • Originally written in Old English, Anglo-Norman, and Occitan. They later were also written in English and German.