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  1. Nutrition

  2. As Americans we love to get our money’s worth!

  3. The Big Texan Steak RanchAmarillo, TX Almost 42,000 people from around the world have traveled to Amarillo and attempted to eat the specially cut 72-oz. top sirloin steak, a baked potato, salad, dinner roll and shrimp cocktail.  About 8,000 have succeeded in completing the feat and joining the ranks of Big Texan champions. Last year higher market prices for cattle pushed the price to $72.00 for the meal.

  4. Pointer’s PizzaSt Louis, MO For years now, Pointers has offered a $500 prize to any two-member team who can demolish an entire 10-pound, two-meat-topping, 28-inch pizza in an hour without leaving the customer area. Teams must call at least a day in advance and cannot compete during lunch or dinner rushes. A pair of recent winners advise ordering lean toppings such as turkey and chicken, lest nausea becomes a disqualifying factor. The Pointersaurus Challenge costs $42, but the pizza sells briskly for parties and office lunches at $35 for a cheese pizza and $5 for each topping

  5. Ben & Jerry’s Vermonster 20 scoops of ice cream (4.5 pounds) 10 scoops of chopped walnuts 5 scoops of fresh whipped cream 4 scoops of hot fudge 5 chocolate chip cookies 2 scoops of M&M’s 2 scoops of Reeses 2 scoops of chocolate jimmies 1 giant homemade brownie

  6. The Big Mac

  7. Typical Meal How many portions? Lone Star

  8. Portion Sizes • 1 tsp margarine = the tip of your thumb • 1 oz. cheese = your thumb, four dice stacked together • 3 oz. chicken or meat = deck of cards • 1 c. pasta = tennis ball • 2 T. peanut butter = large marshmallow • 1 medium potato = computer mouse • 1 medium fruit = baseball • ¼ c. nuts = golf ball • 2 oz. bagel = yo-yo or hockey puck • Small cookie or cracker = poker chip

  9. Nutrition • Is the study of food and how our bodies use food as fuel for our body and our health. • There is a link between lifetime nutritional habits and these diseases: • Heart disease • Cancer • Stroke • Diabetes

  10. Foods Are Composed Of: • Carbohydrates • Proteins • Fats • Vitamins • Minerals • Water ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS – The nutrients that we must include in our diet. Our body does NOT manufacture them.

  11. Nutrition • Foods are various combinations of these nutrients. • Example- meat is a lot of protein, water, fat, vitamins, minerals, but very little CHO. • Energy (the ability to do work) for the body is supplied by every bite that you eat. • Nutrients are released into the body by the process of digestion, which breaks down food into compounds that can be used by the body.

  12. Nutrients Food provides two different and distinct groups of nutrients: Macronutrients (macro = big) CHO, protein, fats, water Micronutrients (micro = small) vitamins and minerals

  13. Best Choices

  14. Three Provide Energy Carbohydrates 4 calories/gram Supply energy to cells in brain, nervous system, blood and to muscles during exercise. Protein 4 calories/gram Repair tissue, help in growth, Supply energy, regulate H2O Fat 9 calories/gram Supply energy, insulate, Support and cushion organs Provide for absorption of Fat-soluble vitamins Six Classes of Essential Nutrients

  15. Ideal Eating Plan Recommendations Protein 10-35% CHO 45-65% Fat 20-35% Saturated Fat < 7-10% Monounsaturated Fat - Up to 20% Polyunsaturated Fat – Up to 10%

  16. Three DO NOT Provide Energy But Are Still Vital Vitamins Initiate or speed up chemical reactions in cells. Minerals Help regulate body functions, aid in growth and maintenance of body tissues. Water The body is about 60% water. Regulates temperature. Removes waste products. Six Classes of Essential Nutrients

  17. Nutrition Alcohol – Although alcohol is not an essential nutrient, it does provide energy. 7 Calories/gram Calories are the potential energy for the body to produce work. One Kcal represents the amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water 1 degree Celsius.

  18. Carbohydrates Are organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Found mostly in plant sources. The only animal source is milk. CHO are our brain food and some cells in the nervous system only use CHO as fuel. They do not utilize fat. CHO also used during high-intensity exercise. AT LEAST 55% of our total calories should come from CHO, with no more than 10-15% of these from simple CHO sources.

  19. Carbohydrates They are classified as simple or complex. Simple are sugars, complex are starches or fiber.

  20. Simple Carbohydrates Sugars and starches occur naturally in many foods—including milk, fruits, some vegetables, bread, cereals, and grains. These foods, however, provide many important nutrients. On the other hand, so-called added sugars-supply added calories, but few nutrients. Foods rich in added sugars include things like soft drinks and desserts.

  21. Leading Sources of Calories in the American Diet 1. Regular soft drinks (7.1% of total calories) 2. Cake, sweet rolls, doughnuts, pastries (3.6%) 3. Hamburgers, cheeseburgers, meat loaf (3.1%) 4. Pizza (3.1%) 5. Potato chips, corn chips, popcorn (2.9%) 6. Rice (2.7%) 7. Rolls, buns, English muffins, bagels (2.7%) 8. Cheese or cheese spread (2.6%) 9. Beer (2.6%) 10. French fries, fried potatoes (2.2%) Source: Block, G. 2004. Foods contributing to energy intake in the U.S.: Data from NHANES III and NHANES 1999–2000. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 17: 439–447.

  22. Choose Sensibly How much sugar is added to this???

  23. Choose Sensibly A sugar by any other name… Read the label to locate hidden sugars in the foods you consume. Sugars are listed by many different names, including brown sugar, corn sweetener, corn syrup, fructose, fruit juice concentrate, glucose or dextrose, high-fructose corn syrup, honey, lactose, maltose, molasses, raw sugar, table sugar, or sucrose, and syrup. If one of these appears near the top of the ingredients list, the food is probably high in added sugars.

  24. Sugar • Study in Annual Review of Nutrition found that women ages 20-39 increased their daily caloric intake from 1,652 to 2,028 (376 more calories). • Also during this time they the calories from protein and fat. Primarily sugar intake increased. • We now consume an additional 25 lbs./year of sugar that previous years.

  25. High Fructose Corn Syrup • Created in 1967, a combination of fructose and glucose • Cheaper and 1.16 times sweeter than cane-derived sugar • 1970 HFCS was in 1% of products • 2000 HFCS in 42% of products • According to 2008 USDA report – 57% of all sugar on the market is purchased by food and beverage industry.

  26. Sugar Average American intake of added sugars: males-22 tsps., females, 16 tsps. This does not include naturally occurring sugars found in foods such as milk and fruits. The USDA recommendation: 1600 calories/day = no more than 6 tsp/day 2200 calories/day = no more than 12 tsp/day 2800 calories/day = no more than 18 tsp/day

  27. Chocolate Shake

  28. Complex Carbohydrates Complex carbohydrates consist of chains of many sugar molecules Found in plants, especially grains, legumes, and tubers Include starches and most types of dietary fiber

  29. Whole Grains • Before they are processed, all grains are whole grains consisting of an inner layer of germ, a middle layer called the endosperm, and an outer layer of bran • During processing, the germ and bran are often removed, leaving just the starchy endosperm • Refined carbohydrates usually retain all the calories of a whole grain but lose many of the nutrients

  30. Whole Grains Whole grains are higher than refined carbohydrates in fiber, vitamins, minerals, and other beneficial compounds Whole grains take longer to digest Make people feel full sooner Cause a slower rise in glucose levels Choose 3 or more servings of whole grains per day

  31. Complex Carbohydrates Complex CHO are broken down through digestive processes to glucose for use by the body. Glucose remains in the blood and some is converted to glycogen and is stored in the liver, muscles, and kidneys. The body can pack about 400 gr. of glycogen. Together with glucose stored, there are about of 1,800 calories of energy. Diets low in CHO promote lean tissue and water loss. Each gram of glycogen is stored with 2-3 grams of water. Thus low CHO intake leads to water loss.

  32. CHO and Energy Glucose is then carried into your cells with the help of insulin, a hormone secreted by your pancreas. Remember. . .with oxygen, glucose is converted to ATP in the mitochondria of the cell. Without oxygen, red blood cells change glucose to energy (ATP), but lactic acid is a byproduct.

  33. CHO Uses CHO also protect muscles. When you need energy the body looks for CHO first. If none are available, because you are on a low CHO diet or you have a condition the inhibits the body from using CHO, the body will use its own protein tissues (muscles). CHO also: Regulate the amount of sugar circulating in the blood, so that your cells get the energy they need. Provide nutrients for the friendly bacteria in the intestinal tract that help digest food. They help the body absorb calcium. They help to lower cholesterol levels and regulate blood pressure, especially fiber.

  34. Where do we get CHO? Most important sources of CHO are plant foods – fruits, vegetables, and grains. Milk and milk products do contain CHO. Meat, fish and poultry do not have CHO. You need: 6-11 servings /day of grain foods (bread, cereals, pasta, rice) 2-4 servings of fruit 3-5 servings of vegetables

  35. Glycemic Index Glycemic Index – Is the measure of how strong of an effect a CHO food has on blood glucose levels. A high glycemic index CHO tends to cause a quick and dramatic rise in glucose and insulin levels. High glycemic foods can increase appetite, and are linked to increased diabetes and heart disease.

  36. Glycemic Index

  37. Source of Glycemic Index Chart: Diet Information

  38. Fiber—A Closer Look Dietary fiber = non-digestible carbohydrates and lignin that are present naturally in plants Functional fiber = non-digestible carbohydrates isolated from natural sources or synthesized in a lab and added to a food or supplement Total fiber = dietary fiber + functional fiber

  39. Types of Fiber Soluble (viscous) fiber = fiber that dissolves in water or is broken down by bacteria in the large intestine Slows the body’s absorption of glucose Binds cholesterol-containing compounds Sources: pears, apples, prunes, oat, oranges, zucchini

  40. Types of Fiber Insoluble fiber = fiber that doesn’t dissolve in water Makes feces bulkier and softer Helps prevent constipation, hemorrhoids, and diverticulitis Sources: bran (outer layer of wheat/corn), the skins of fruit and root vegetables, and leafy greens Fiber adds no calories to your diet. There is no fiber in meat, fish, poultry, milk, milk products and eggs.

  41. Recommended Intake of Fiber Women = 25 grams per day Men = 38 grams per day Americans currently consume about half this amount

  42. Why Do We Need Fiber? Fiber helps to speed the passage of waste through the intestinal tract which lowers the risk of cancer because any potential carcinogens are moved out quickly. Water-soluble fiber binds with cholesterol in the intestinal tract and blocks the absorption and helps the body release it. Thus, a lower total cholesterol level!! Less cholesterol means less risk of heart disease!

  43. Refined vs. Unrefined Fiber The processing of package foods can remove fiber. REFINED CHO – Retain all the calories, but are lower in fiber, vitamins, and minerals. UNREFINED CHO (Whole Grains)– Take longer to chew and digest and enter the blood more slowly. Thus, you feel fuller longer, more anti-oxidant vitamins and phytochemicals and decrease risk of diabetes. Example: Long grain rice vs Minute Rice

  44. Carbohydrates Recommended to consume 45-65% (275-300 grams) of total calories as CHO, with not more than 10% from simple CHO. Athletes may need more, especially endurance athletes! Marathoners CHO load right before the event because they exercise for longer than 90 minutes. Choose fresh fruits, vegetables, and whole grains to fuel the body!

  45. 12 Great Foods Center for Science in the Public Interest • Whole Grains (bread, pasta) • Beans • Brown rice • Oatmeal • Sweet potato • Baked potato • Broccoli • Spinach/kale • Strawberries • Oranges (orange juice) • Cantaloupe • Skim milk (yogurt) How many are carbohydrates??

  46. “Those who think they have no time for healthy eating will sooner or later have to find time for illness.” Edward Stanley (1826-1893) from The Conduct of Life

  47. FATS (Lipids) • The most concentrated source of energy. We store 50 times more energy in the form of fat, than in CHO. • 3500 calories = 1 pound of fat. • The body burns fat as an energy source for periods of rest and low to moderate physical activity. About 70% of the energy we need comes from fat, 30% from glucose, except for high intensity work. • Function of fats: • Insulation • Cushion body organs • Provide energy • Vitamin storage (fat soluble A, D, E, K) • Add flavor and texture to foods. Some fat is invisible, as it is tucked in and around our organs. It is a part of every cell membrane. Brain tissue is also rich in fat.

  48. Fats in Food • Food contains 3 kinds of fats: triglycerides, phospholipids and sterols. • Triglycerides are the fats you use to make adipose tissue and what you burn for energy. • Phospholipids help to carry hormones and vitamins through the blood and across cell membranes. • Sterols are fat and alcohol compounds with no calories. • Vitamin D, testosterone and cholesterol are sterols.

  49. Right Amount of Fat • Balance must occur to get the right amount of fat in your healthy eating plan. • Too much – risk of obesity, diabetes, heart disease, cancers • Too little – infants and children do not grow, not able to absorb A, D, E, K that help with vision, smooth skin, immune system and reproductive organs • Fat should make up <30% of calories, with no more than 10% from saturated fat sources. • For 2000 cal./day that would be 600 calories or fewer from fat and 200 calories or fewer of that from saturated fat.

  50. Foods and Fats • Fruits and vegetables have only traces of fat, primarily unsaturated fatty acids. • Grains have very small amounts of fat. • Dairy products vary. Cream is high-fat. Whole milk and cheeses are moderately high in fat. Skim milk and skim milk products are low fat foods. Most fat in dairy is saturated. • Meat is moderately high in fat – mainly saturated. • Chicken and turkey are lower in fat. • Fish may be high or low, but is primarily unsaturated fatty acids. • Vegetable oils, butter and lard are high fat. Most oils are unsaturated. Lard and butter are saturated.