科技發展與大眾媒體簡史 傳播科技 世新大學 圖文傳播暨數位出版學系 劉耀仁
傳 播 的 過 程 • 傳播(Communication)係指交換資訊的一種過程，簡單的說，資訊(Information)係指傳播的內容 • 傳播的過程可分為八個構程要素，而在每一次資訊的交換中被使用(Schramm,1982): 發訊者(source):為傳播的創作者或起源處
訊息(message):為傳播的內容，指將被交換的資訊訊息(message):為傳播的內容，指將被交換的資訊 製碼者(encoder):將訊息轉譯為可被傳播的形式 管道(channel):將訊息由某處傳輸至另一處時，所使用的媒介或傳送系統 解碼者(decoder):將所接收到的符碼訊息，轉議成為人們可了解的形式
受訊者(receiver):為傳播的最終目的地 回饋(feedback):為介於發訊者與受訊者之間的一種結構，可被用來作為調整傳播之流通的途徑 雜訊(noise):為資訊交換時可能發生的失真或錯誤
傳 播 的 類 型 • 個人內在傳播 針對個人本身 • 思考 • 私人日記 • 人際傳播 面對面 • 交談 • 肢體語言 單向面對多向 • 電話 • 電子郵件
單向面對多向 • 散佈的傳真訊息 • 電子郵件名單 • 小群體傳播 面對面 • 群體間交談 單向面對單向 • 討論式對話 單向面對多向 • 會議式電話
大群體傳播 • 演講 • 授課 • 大眾媒介 中心式的發訊者對個別 的受訊者 • 報紙 • 電視、無線電廣播
新的科技與大眾媒介 • 大眾媒介的發訊者 • 宣偉伯(Wilbur Schramm)—提出大眾 媒介之傳統定義 •議題設定(agenda setting)—由守門 人(gatekeepers)的精英人員，決定受 眾應該接收哪些訊息
大眾媒介的訊息 • 從前，大眾媒介的訊息並未經過區隔 化，而僅是將其傳送給盡可能多數的 受訊者; 首要策略是將受訊者的喜好 及觀念加以均質化(homogenize) ， 以達成工業化社會中的大量市場目標 • 新的大眾媒介更傾向於迎合特定的群體， 甚至不斷的界定出新群體
大眾媒介管道 每一種媒介均需要有為特定目標而設傳送或分配系統，其訊息也非是永久性的 目前的管道數量與種類，產生了極大的改變
大眾媒介的受眾 • 傳統觀念受眾是一個未經區隔化的群體 • 大眾媒體訊息受眾是一群沉默的接受者 • 媒介的經濟狀況需要受眾來製造或維繫 大眾媒介系統所花費的 巨額支出，盡可能的由 這些廣大的受眾身上取 得
傳播媒介與傳播科技的重要性 • 大眾媒介與資訊科技之融匯與市場結合的概念的代表意義 • 傳播的種類 • 傳播的互動性 • 新的科技對大眾媒介的影響?市場將如何受影響?
Communication TechnologyWhat is it? • Provides a transfer of knowledge to people all over the world. • Records, stores, manipulates, analyzes, and transmit data. • Includes computers, graphic media, electronic transmitters, recognizing devices, and entertainment products etc. • Deals with information in digital form.
Communication Technology: Why is it Important? • Assist people in making decisions and solving problems • Allow individuals research and check out facts of messages • Form of entertainment: Radio, movies, TV, videogames. • Gather facts on how to use other technologies to help society • Understand influences of technology (i.e., timing culture, sequencing etc.)
MILESTONES IN COMMUNCATIONS • Early words (3500-1BC) • Printing (AD100-1600) • Cameras and microphones (1700-1840) • Telegraphs and telephones (1850-1900) • Pictures—still and moving (1880-1900) • Entertainment and information (1900-present)
Early words (3500-1BC) • In about 3500 BC ancient Egyptians used papyrus, pressed into flat sheets, as a writing surface. Later they used parchment (the dried skin of animals like sheep). • In around 3000 BC the ancient Sumerians of Mesopotamia developed cuneiform writing. Having a writing system allowed people for the first time to record information and ideas. • By about 1700 BC a 22-letter alphabet was used by the ancient Phoenicians. • In about 1100 BC the first dictionary was compiled by the Chinese. • Paper was invented by the Chinese in about 140 BC, but there is little evidence that it was used for writing at the time. • By 40 BC the library at Alexandria in Egypt was the greatest storehouse of knowledge in existence, containing more than 400,000 scrolls. • In around 5 BC Roman physician Celcus compiled an early encyclopedia, devoted to medical subjects. The modern encyclopedia was published on 1728 by British publisher Ephraim Chambers(c. 1680-1740).
Printing (AD100-1600) • In the first millennium AD, China was the source of a number of important inventions for communicating. • In 110 the oldest surviving writing paper was made in China. • In 748 the world’s first printed newspaper was produced in Beijing, China. • By 751 the earliest printed text, a Buddhist scroll, was completed. • Arab physicist Alhazen (965-c. 1040) proposed a way of studying an eclipse of the sun, which formed the basis of the pinhole camera, or camera obscura, described by Leonardo da Vinci in the 1400s and invented in 1570 by Giovani Battista della Porta.
Printing (cont.) • In about 1045, the Chinese were printing using movable type, an invention that was developed in Europe 400 years later, in 1453, by German printer Johannes Gutenberg (1400-1468). The first English book was printed in 1474 by William Caxton (c.1422-c.1491). • In 1107 printing with several colors was developed in China, initially to make the forgery of paper money more diffcult. • In 1155 the earliest known printed map was produces in China. • By 1189 the earliest paper mill in Europe was established. • By about 1250 the quill pen (goose feather) became the most popular writing instrument in Europe. • In 1565 German natural scientist Konrad Gessner (1516-1565) invented the graphite-filled pencil.
Cameras and microphones (1700-1840) • The year 1702 saw the launch of the Daily Courant in London, Britain’s first daily newspaper. • In 1725 French inventor Basile Bouchon devised the punched-card system to control a loom; this was the forerunner of computer programs. • In 1796 Czech printer and playwright Alois Senefelder (1771-1834) invented lithography, a nonrelief printing method using limestone and frease. He used the process, which he discovered by accident, as an economic way to duplicate his scripts. • In 1824 French teacher Louis Braille (1809-1852), blind from age 3, invented a raised-point writing system for the blind. • In 1839 the earliest photographic print on silver chloride paper was made by British physicist W. Fox Talbot (1800-1877). In the same year, the daguerreotype photographic process was invented by French painter Jacques Daguerre (1789-1851).
Telegraphs and telephones (1850-1900) • Scientists had been experimenting with telegraphs for many years before British physicists Charles Wheatstone (1802-1875) and William Cooke (1806-1879) patented the telegraph in 1837. The invention transformed communications by making fast, long distance communication possible for the first time. • In 1837, American inventor Samuel Morse first demonstrated his code for transmitting messages. Morse code became the standard used in telegraphy. • The year 1854 saw the installation of an electric telegraph between London and Paris. In the same year, the cathode ray tube was invented by German glassblower Heinrich Geissler (1814-1879).
Telegraphs and telephones (cont.) • In 1858 the first telegraph cables were laid across the Atantic Ocean. By 1872, most of the world’s major cities could communicate with one another by telegraph. • In 1867 the mechanical typewriter was invented. • In 1876 the telephone was invented by British-born American inventor Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922). Several other scientists were working on the device on the device at the same time, but Bell was the first to receive a patent. The carbon microphone, developed by American inventor Thomas Edison (1847-1931) the following year, vastly improved the phone’s sound quality. • In 1878 the first telephone exchange opened in New Haven, CT. The exchange offered a slow service until the mechanical automatic selector was designed a decade later. Electronic exchanges, providing an even faster service, were introduced in the 1960’s.
Pictures—still and moving (1880-1900) • In 1881 the earliest color photograph was produced by American invetor Frederick lves (1856-1937). In the same year a forerunner of the movie camera was devised by French physiologist Etienne-Jules Marey (1830-1903) to analyze movements. • In 1885 continuous photographic film was invented by American invetor George Eastman (1854-1932), making cheap photography and moving pictures possible. • In 1890 British inventor William Frieze-Green (1855-1921) pioneered motion pictures, showing his first movie; he later devised color and 3-D cinematography.
Pictures—still and moving (cont.) • In 1895 Italian inventor and electrical engineer Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937) made his first successful transmission by wireless telegraphy, or radio. Six year later, he sent transatlantic radio signals for the first time. Commercial radio broadcasts began in the US in 1920, when station KDKA, Pittsburgh, PA went on air. • Also in 1895, the cinematograph, a cinema projector, was used to project a moving film. • In the late 1890’s, the zoetrope was one of a number of optical toys that produced “moving” pictures. • In 1896 American statistician Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) set up International Business Machines (IBM) after his success in using the punched-card system to process the 1890 US census.
Entertainment and information (1900-present) • In 1904 gramophone records were invented. • In 1924 American electrical engineer Edwin Armstrong (1890-1954) devised frequency modulation (FM), a static-free way of the transmitting radio signals that achieved great popularity with music stations in the 1950’s and 1960s. • In 1926 the first“talkie” motion picture–The Jazz Singer, starring AI Jolson-was released. During the same year, the television pictures were produced by British electrical engineer John Baird (1888-1946). Color television was first broadcast in 1940.
Entertainment and information (cont.) • In 1936 paperback books were first marketed under the Penguin Books imprint. • In 1937, American inventor Chester Carlson (1906-1986) discovered the process of xerography, which was later developed by Xerox Corporation in photocopying machines. • In 1952 the first transistor radio was developed by the Sony Corporation. • In 1956 the first computer programming language, FORTRAN, was devised by IBM. Other computer languages developed later include COBOL and BASIC.
Entertainment and information (cont.) • Audio cassettes were introduced in 1963, and video cassettes in 1969. • In 1981, IBM launched the first personal computers (PCs), giving individuals access to computers for the first time. • In 1982 compact disk (CD) players were introduced. CDs are a digital system of recording, as opposed to analog, and cannot wear out. • In 1985 the CD-ROM (compact-disk read-only memory) was introduced, greatly expanding data storage capacity. • The 1990s saw the introduction of the “information superhighway.” One aspect of this is Internet, which connects users to a range of information sources and activities –including newspapers, archives, and electronic mail—though computer link-ups and telephone lines. There are an estimated 15 million users in the US, and 25 million worldwide.
Satellite join to communication • "Sputnik 1" was the first satellite in space. It was launched in October 4, 1957 by the USSR. It was a sphere with a diameter of 58 centimetres that weighed 84 kilogrammes.
A History of Information and Communication Technologies 引用自：William J. McIver, Jr. School of Information Science & Policy University at Albany Albany, New York 31
Information and Communication Technologies • Information Use • Computing Devices • Electronic Computers • Other Computing Technologies • Telecommunications Systems • Programming technologies / languages
Information and Communication Information • Knowledge derived from study, experience, or instruction • A collection of facts or data Communication • The act of communicating Communicate • The exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, signals, writing, or behavior.
InformationModes of Information Use in Human History • Oral cultures (> 1,000,000 years ago) • Painting (> 20,000 B.C.E.) • Writing (7,000 - 3800 B.C.E.) • Printing (circa 800 B.C.E. - 1456 C.E. ) • Non-electronic Computation (1623 - 1940s) • Telegraphy (1844) • Telephone (1876) • Radio (1895) • Television (1929) • Electronic Computation ( circa 1945) • Computer networking (1969) • Commercial Internet (1990) • World Wide Web (1992)
Ancient Computational DevicesHand Devices • Counting bones (circa 6,000 B.C.E.) • calendar or enumeration systems • Khipu (or Quipu) (600 - 1000 C.E.) • Andean peoples • made from string • used to record various kinds of information, including numbers • Abacus (circa 500 B.C.E.) • counting boards (500 B.C.E. - 500 C.E.) • Chinese, Korea, and Japan 1200 C.E. - 1600 C.E.
Early Computational DevicesMechanical Calculators • Wilhelm Schickard (1624) • Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, Division • Blaise Pascal’s Pascaline (1645) • Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication • Gottfried Leibniz Calculator (1694) • division, square root • Development influenced by: • European Scientific Revolution • Growth in Commerce • Not widely adopted • Most people did not yet understand their benefits • Expensive and hard to fix
Early Computational DevicesIndustrial Revolution • Joseph Marie Jacquard -- The Jacquard Loom (1801) • automated weaving • cards used to “program” the loom • widely adopted • 11,000 Jacquard looms in France by 1812. Sources Stern and Stern (1983). Computers in Society. Prentice-Hall.
Early Computational DevicesProgrammable Machines • Charles Babbage’s Difference Engine (1822*) • * never completed • designed to automate the process for calculating the roots of polynomials • Charles Babbage and Ada Byron, Lady Lovelace’s Analytical Engine (1837*) • * never completed • introduced concept of stored program • borrowed concepts from Jacquard • Ada is said to be the world’s first programmer. • Pehr George Scheutz’s Difference Engine (1854) • Based on Babbage’s work.
Early Computational DevicesProgrammable Machines • Herman Hollerith’s Tabulating Machine (1884) • used paper cards with holes punched in them • holes in the cards permitted an electrical contact to be made, activating a counter • developed for the U.S. census of 1890. • reduced the census count to 2 years from 6 years for the 1880 census. • approx. 60,000,000 cards were processed. Sources : Stern and Stern (1983). Computers in Society. Prentice-Hall.
Central Processing Unit (CPU) Random Access Memory (RAM) Input / Output Device Input / Output Device Digital ComputersThe Basic Architecture • Due to John von Neumann, a mathematician at Princeton University. data bus ...
Digital ComputersElectromechanical computers • Used relays (electro-mechanical switches) to complete circuits. • Influenced by World War II. • Most developers unaware of Babbage’s work. • Z3, Konrad Zuse, Germany (1941) • probably the first fully functional digital computer. • Mark I, Howard Aiken, Harvard University (1944) • Models I - V, George R. Stibitz, Bell Labs (1946) Sources Stern and Stern (1983). Computers in Society. Prentice-Hall. Horst Zuse. (n.d.). http://www.epemag.com/zuse/default.htm
Digital ComputersElectronic computers First generation computers (1942 - 1956) • No moving parts. • Used vacuum tubes • ABC, Atanasoff and Berry,Iowa State University (1942) • never completed • ENIAC, Mauchly and Eckert, University of Pennsylvania (1946) • programmed by setting switches • EDVAC, Mauchly and Eckert, University of Pennsylvania (1951) • stored programs
Digital ComputersElectronic computers • UNIVAC, Mauchly and Eckert, Remington Rand (1951) • first commercial computer • used magnetic for input and output • 46 machines were sold. Sources Kathleen Guinee. (1995). A Journey through the History of Information Technology. http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~kguinee/thesis.html Stern and Stern (1983). Computers in Society. Prentice-Hall.
Digital ComputersElectronic computers Second Generation Computers (1956 - 1958) • transistors • smaller and more reliable than vacuum tubes • faster • Bell Labs Leprechaun (1956) • Other computers built by IBM, Philco, GE, and RCA Sources Kathleen Guinee. (1995). A Journey through the History of Information Technology. http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~kguinee/thesis.html
Digital ComputersElectronic computers Third Generation Computers (1958 - ) • computers built with integrated circuits (ICs) • ICs were invented in 1958 by Fairchild Semiconductor • ICs are silicon “chip” containing transistors. • ICs reduced the size of computers and allowed specific functions to be “packaged” into mass produced units • e.g. adders, flip-flops, memory, etc. Sources Kathleen Guinee. (1995). A Journey through the History of Information Technology. http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~kguinee/thesis.html
Digital ComputersElectronic computers • Digital Equipment Corporation (1962 - 1971) • produced a minicomputer • $15,000 • IBM 360 Computer (1964) • Made using ICs • addressed compatibility and scalability issues • could be expanded • each member of the 360 line was compatible with the other • perhaps the most popular mainframe computer for over 2 decade. Sources Kathleen Guinee. (1995). A Journey through the History of Information Technology. http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~kguinee/thesis.html
Digital ComputersElectronic computers Fourth Generation (1971 - present) • Computers built with microprocessors • Intel invented the first microprocessor in 1971 -- the 4004. • Microprocessors are large integrated circuits • based on transistors -- like other ICs • all of the logic of a CPU contained in one chip Sources Kathleen Guinee. (1995). A Journey through the History of Information Technology. http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~kguinee/thesis.html
Digital ComputersElectronic computers • First personal computers were developed • Altair (1974) • Bill Gates and Paul Allen license their version of BASIC to Altair • Apple I (1976), Apple II (1977) • IBM PC (1981) • Macintosh (1984) : Graphic user interface, GUI Sources Kathleen Guinee. (1995). A Journey through the History of Information Technology. http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~kguinee/thesis.html
Other Computing Technologies • The first hard drive invented by IBM (1956) • the RAMAC 305 • 5 MB • 50 platters, each 2 ft in diameter
Other Computing Technologies • Interactive Computing Concepts • Vannevar Bush (1945) essay “As We May Think” • The Memex concept • J.C.R. Licklider (1960) • article “Man Computer Symbiosis” • MIT Sketchpad: first interactive graphics system (1963) • Douglas Englebart (1963 - present) • mouse and windowing concepts invented and developed (1963 - 1968) • Xerox PARC (1970s) • developed first commercial windows-based computers