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MS Studies Chapter 3. The Road To Statehood Native Americans Europeans Territory State. Early Native American Periods. Paleo (10,000 B.C. – 8,000 B.C.) existed during Ice Age Natives crossed Land Bridge between Russia & Alaska following food Archaic (8,000 B.C. – 500 B.C.)

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Ms studies chapter 3

MS Studies Chapter 3

The Road To Statehood

Native Americans

Europeans

Territory

State


Early native american periods
Early Native American Periods

  • Paleo (10,000 B.C. – 8,000 B.C.)

    • existed during Ice Age

    • Natives crossed Land Bridge between Russia & Alaska following food

  • Archaic (8,000 B.C. – 500 B.C.)

    • Climate warmed. Large animals died

    • Natives became less nomadic, hunted smaller game

  • Woodland – (500 B.C. – 1,000 A.D.)

    • Highly organized societies

    • Were Moundbuilders. Mounds were built over tombs

    • Were farmers, depended less on hunting.

    • Settled along rivers and streams

    • Settlements were very large

  • Mississippian (1,000 A.D. – 1,600 A.D.)

    • Built Mounds for burial, homes for leaders, and religious reasons

    • Emerald Mound (Natchez, MS) is the largest mound in Mississippi

    • Settlements were near rivers and streams

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Mississipians
Mississipians

  • Major crops:

    • Maize (corn)

    • Beans

    • Squash

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Ms studies chapter 3

Paleo Period

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Ms studies chapter 3

Archaic

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Ms studies chapter 3

Woodland

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Native american societies
Native American Societies

  • Large tribes were Choctaw, Chickasaw, & Natchez

  • Many smaller tribes existed (Choula, Pascagoula, Tunica, Biloxi, etc.)

  • Most tribes were similar

  • Each village governed itself, but had representatives on a tribal council

  • There were several Clans in each village

    • Individuals had to marry outside their clan. Children were members of their mothers clan.

  • Polygamy (multiple wives) was sometimes practiced. Wives were usually sisters

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Ms studies chapter 3

Choctaw Village

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Native american societies cont
Native American Societies (Cont.)

  • Males

    • Hunted, cleared land, warriors

  • Females

    • Planted, made pottery, gathered food, tanned hides

  • Polytheistic (many gods)

  • Most gods centered around the sun or earth in some way

  • Choctaw played ishtohbohl (stick ball) which was similar to Lacrosse

  • Choctaw also played Chunky (threw spears at a rolling stone)

  • Natchez were more like the Mississippian period Indians

    • Leader was the “Great Sun”

    • When he died some of his wives were killed as well

Chp 3 & 4 Antebellum MS


Questions
Questions

  • What was the purpose of mounds?

    • burial, homes for leaders, and religious ceremonies.

    • What crops did the Choctaw and Chikasaw raise?

      • Maize, pumpkins, beans, and peas.

        Around what were the religious beliefs of the Indian tribes in Mississippi centered?

        sun and sacred fire

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Ms studies chapter 3

Ishtohbohl

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Chunky
Chunky

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Spanish arrive
Spanish Arrive

  • Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto explored Southeastern MS between 1539 – 1542. Had 600 soldiers

  • Looking for Gold & Silver

  • Gained supplies & slaves by holding Native American chiefs hostage

  • Faced many Native American attacks

  • Crossed MS River in May 1542

  • De Soto died in 1542

  • His men floated down the MS River to the Gulf and were pursued by Natives the entire trip.

  • Spanish didn’t return, but their trip was devastating.

    • This expedition introduced European diseases to North American Natives.

    • It is estimated that at least 50% of Natives in North America died from disease during this time period.

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Ms studies chapter 3

De Soto in MS

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French
French

  • French settled Canada in 1608

  • 1673 Marquette & Joliet explored MS River

  • 1682 Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle & Henri de Tonti sailed down MS River to the Gulf & claim the MS River Valley for France.

  • Named this new land Louisiana (King Louis & Queen Anna)

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Ms studies chapter 3

LaSalle

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European settlements in north america
European Settlements in North America

  • Spanish – Florida, Mexico, Caribbean & Central America

  • British – East coast of present day U.S.

  • French – Canada

  • All three were rivals and fighting to secure lands & Native support

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French settlement
French Settlement

  • French wanted to control interior of U.S.

  • 1699 Pierre le Moyne, Sieur d’Iberville is sent to Gulf Coast to create colony

  • Landed at Ship Island and reached mainly on Feb. 13, 1699.

  • Located mouth of MS River and met with the Natchez Indians

  • Built Fort Maurepas in present day Ocean Springs

  • Fort Maurepas is the first European settlement in MS.

  • Iberville left many times and left his younger brother, Jean-Baptiste le Moyne, Sieur d’Bienville in charge.

  • Fort Maurepas is later abandoned and a new settlement is created at the mouth of the MS River at New Orleans in 1718

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Ms studies chapter 3

Iberville

Bienville

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Ms studies chapter 3

Fort Maurepas

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French settlement cont
French Settlement (Cont.)

  • Bienville constructed Fort Rosalie at Natchez in 1716 to protect French settlers

  • Natchez prospered

  • 1729 Natchez governor demanded the Natchez give up some land. The Natchez revolted

  • They attacked the fort, killed 200 white settlers, and freed 300 black slaves

  • French & Choctaws destroyed the Natchez. Remaining Natchez fled to live with the Chickasaw.

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Ms studies chapter 3

Fort Rosalie

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Native americans europeans
Native Americans & Europeans

  • Native American tribes were divided

  • Europeans fought for Native American Allies with trade goods

  • French won the allegiance of the Choctaw

  • British won allegiance of Chickasaw, Natchez, & Creek

  • French & Indian War (1754-1763) was fought between France & Great Britain in the present day U.S.

  • French lost the war and the Treaty of Paris 1763 was signed.

  • French gave up all lands east of the MS River (except for New Orleans) to Great Britain.

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British ms
British MS

  • After Treaty of Paris MS became part of West Florida

  • Area was remote & rural

  • British encouraged settlement in Natchez

  • Land Grants were given in the Natchez District

  • British settlers populated the area

  • 1776 American Revolution began

  • Natchez & other portions of West Florida were captured by the Spanish in Sept. 1779.

  • Treaty of Paris 1783 ended Amer. Rev. and made the southern boundary of the U.S. 31°

  • Spanish still controlled Natchez, but U.S. owned it.

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British west florida
British West Florida

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Spanish ms
Spanish MS

  • Natchez thrived under Spanish rule

  • Fertile land allowed tobacco, indigo, and cotton to grow well

  • By 1800 cotton was the largest export of Natchez

  • America and Spain quarreled over access to the MS River (N.O. owned by Spain)

  • 1795 Pinckney’s Treaty, officially the Treaty of San Lorenzo de Real, was signed saying the U.S. could use the port of New Orleans and Spain would give up control of Natchez

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Pinckney s treaty
Pinckney’s Treaty

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Ms territory
MS Territory

  • MS became a territory of the U.S. in 1798

  • Mostly Native American and forested

  • Natchez Trace was only major road. It connected the MS Territory capital of Natchez to Nashville, TN.

  • Northwest Ordinance of 1787 established the Territorial Government in MS

    • MS given a Governor, 3 Judges, and Sec. Governor

    • Pop. Reaches 5,000 free men an assembly is created to make laws

    • Pop. Reaches 60,000 free men the territory creates a constitution and petitions for statehood

  • Winthrop Sargent was first governor. He was viewed as mean and strict. He was a Federalist, and many Mississippians were Jeffersonian Democrats

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Natchez trace
Natchez Trace

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Ms territory1
MS Territory

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Winthrop sargent
Winthrop Sargent

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Land problems
Land Problems

  • Most MS land was owned by Choctaw & Chickasaw.

  • U.S. pressured them to give up land claims

  • Settlers faced many problems b/c British, French, Spanish, & U.S. had granted land claims and many overlapped

  • Land Ordinance of 1785 divided government land into townships.

    • 6 square miles, 36 sections (1 square mile each), 640 acres per section

    • 16th section set aside for public education

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Territory grows
Territory Grows

  • Territory became sectionalized.

  • West Mississippians (Natchez) were rich plantation owners and controlled politics. East Mississippians (Alabama) were small farmers and wanted power

  • 1804 territory expanded to TN line

  • 1812 territory expanded between Pearl River and Florida

  • Population grew and the territory was ready for statehood

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Ms territory2
MS Territory

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Statehood

MS Territory was large. Congress divided it in 1817.

Alabama became a new territory (state in 1819)

MS wrote a constitution for statehood

Legislature was given more power than the Executive

Constitution was not presented to the people, but sent straight to Washington

Dec. 10, 1817, Congress approved MS as the 20th state in the Union

David Holmes became first governor.

Statehood

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State of ms
State of MS

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David holmes
David Holmes

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Ms studies ch 4

MS StudiesCh. 4

Politics, Slavery, and Antebellum Society


Ms capital
MS Capital

  • 1798 Natchez was Territorial Capital, b/c it was most substantial settlement

  • 1802 the Capital was moved to Washington

  • Others wanted a more centrally located capital

  • In 1821 planners selected LeFleur’s Bluff on the Pearl River as a central location

  • The capital was named Jackson and the legislature first met there in Dec. 1822

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Natchez ms
Natchez, MS

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Early ms politics
Early MS Politics

  • Mississippi political views changed by 1832.

  • Mississippians were Democrats & championed the Common Man

  • Constitution of 1832 reflected changing political views

    • Judges elected & served terms

    • Most officials elected

    • Representation in legislature based on population

  • County Govn’t met needs of people

    • “Board of Police” governed

      • Levied taxes

      • Oversaw roads & construction

      • Oversaw poor, education, businesses, etc.

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Native american lands
Native American Lands

  • Native Americans occupied mostland in MS

  • U.S. Govn’t tried to allow Natives to assimilate, but many natives did not want to. Some tribes united:

    • Tecumseh united some, but Pushmataha prevented the Choctaw from joining

  • Whites wanted Natives moved west of the MS River to free up land.

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Native american treaties

Treaties were signed to acquire Native lands.

1801 Treaty of Fort Adams. 1st treaty between U.S. & Choctaw

1805 Treaty of Mt. Dexter (U.S. & Choctaw)

1820 Treaty of Doak’s Stand – land swap, but Choctaw received bad land and didn’t move.

1830 Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek. Choctaw ceded all remaining land to U.S. & moved to Oklahoma.

1832 Treaty of Pontotoc Creek. Chickasaw ceded their land to U.S. in land swap deal.

Natives traveled along the “Trail of Tears” to Oklahoma. Many died along the way.

Native American Treaties

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Dancing rabbit creek
Dancing Rabbit Creek

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Pontotoc creek
Pontotoc Creek

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Slavery
Slavery

  • Slaves arrived in MS with French in early 1700’s

  • 1724 Bienville creates “Black Code” or laws to govern slaves

    • Many of the codes were prohibitive, but many protected slaves

    • Slavery was not as cruel during this time.

  • Slave population grew under British, Spanish, & U.S. rule

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Cotton
Cotton

  • Cotton production increased in MS

  • 1793 Eli Whitney creates cotton gin.

    • Cotton gin separates seeds from cotton

  • 1795 cotton gin is created in MS by a slave named Barclay

  • Cotton was called “King Cotton” b/c it was the primary cash crop of the South

  • Cotton was perfect for MS. Good soil, long growing season, navigable rivers

  • Rush Nutt creates “Petit Gulf” cotton which is the strain that grows best here.

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Slaves labor
Slaves & Labor

  • By 1860 9% of MS pop. owned slaves

    • ½ of those owned 5 or less slaves

  • Most slaves lived on plantations w/ large slave populations

  • Slaves performed many tasks, but mainly cotton production

  • Overseers usually controlled slaves

  • Work day was sunrise to sunset (or later)

  • Slaves could be whipped, but owners usually tried using rewards opposed to punishment

  • Slaves lived in simple homes with little luxury.

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Slaveship
Slaveship

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Slave ship
Slave ship

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Slaves picking cotton 1830 s
Slaves picking cotton1830’s

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Slave community
Slave Community

  • Slave laws tightened in the 1800’s

    • Property not people. Families could be separated at any time.

    • Needed pass to leave plantation

    • Could not learn to read & write, gather, testify in court, strike a white,

  • Strong family ties were forged among slaves

  • Slaves adopted Christianity & adapted it.

    • Attended church w/ owners, but also worshipped on their own.

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Slave community1
Slave Community

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Slave resistance
Slave Resistance

  • MS never had a slave revolt

  • Most resistance was quiet

    • Slow work, poisoning, machinery broken, fires started, etc.

  • Slaves did runaway & were punished upon return.

  • Owners were paranoid about revolts and sometimes punished slaves for planning revolts.

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Natchez ad for a lost runaway
Natchez ad for a lost runaway

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Natchez ad for a lost runaway1
Natchez ad for a lost runaway

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Free blacks
Free Blacks

  • MS had free blacks.

  • William Johnson, Barber of Natchez, was most famous

  • MS attempted to force free blacks out of the state by 1830’s, so they could not start revolts or riots.

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Barber of natchez
Barber of Natchez

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Antebellum ms
Antebellum MS

  • Antebellum – time period in the South just before the Civil War

  • MS pop. grew b/c of cheap land and high cotton prices

  • MS economy was booming

  • Pres. Jackson withdrew federal money from the National Bank & put it in state “Pet Banks”

  • State Banks issued more paper money and loans than the amount of specie (hard currency) that they had.

  • This led to disaster.

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Panic of 1837
Panic of 1837

  • Specie Circular Act of 1836 said govn’t land could only be purchased with specie.

  • Banks ran out of Specie and were forced to close

  • This caused Panic of 1837 (led to U.S. depression from 1837-1841)

  • In MS federal govn’t foreclosed on lands, banks closed, cotton prices plummeted,

  • Property owners lost lands to the state for not paying taxes.

  • Took MS’s economy years to recover.

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Transportation in ms
Transportation in MS

  • No paved roads until 1900’s. Roads travel was slow and poor

  • Steamboats carried cotton up and down MS Rivers (most went to New Orleans)

  • By mid 1800’s Railroads in MS began expanding and improved land travel

    • Main (trunk) lines were laid connecting Vicksburg, Jackson, Meridian & other cities

    • Later smaller lines joined these major lines and RR travel & trade improved.

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Simple steam engine
Simple steam engine

  • a simplified triple-expansion engine.High-pressure steam (red) enters from the boiler and passes through the engine, exhausting as low-pressure steam (blue) to the condenser.

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Mechanics of an early steam engine
Mechanics of an early steam engine

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Education
Education

  • By 1836 Counties were funding schools

  • School year was short (3 months) and operated around harvesting of crops

  • By 1860 less than 1/3 of white children went to school

  • Basics were taught

  • Higher Ed. was available through religious & private schools

  • There were no schools for blacks before the Civil War

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