Land of the Pharaohs
About 31 B.C. two mighty kings met in battle. One king wore a white crown and ruled over a long stretch of the Nile River in Upper Egypt. The other king had a red crown and controlled a large area in Lower Egypt. The outcome of the Battle was of enormous importance. Whoever won it controlled the biggest Kingdom in the world
What does this Illustration show??? To show his victory Menes wore a double crown. The crown represented the joining of Upper and Lower Egypt.
Who won this battle?? Upper Egypt King Menes (MEE nees) or Narmer King Menes Unified Upper and Lower Egypt Unification – is the joining of separate parts into one. Menes became the first pharaoh of Egypt Pharaoh – (FAY roh) the titles used by the rulers of Ancient Egypt
Yes and he was considered a God Did the Egyptians worship the Pharaoh? The Pharaoh owned everything in Egypt and this put him at the center of the economy. Economy – the way its people manage money and resources for the production of goods and services. What was Egypt’s economy based on? agriculture
Who was the undisputed head of Egypt??? hint The pharaoh Government under the pharaoh After unification the most powerful local leaders became governors for the local government These governors were responsible for collecting Taxes and serving as judges These governors reported to the pharaoh’s headquarters in Memphis Memphis was Egypt’s capital city.
Key word or idea Notes- abbreviated (main idea) Menes-first pharaoh – unified Upper & Lower Egypt 31 B.C. Supreme government ruler (assigned governors of areas- collected taxes served as judges) Memphis- capital city ______________________________________ Way people manage money and resources Based on agriculture • Pharaoh ________ • economy
Key word or idea Notes- abbreviated (main idea) Pharaoh, priests & nobles/ scribes traders artisans, shopkeepers/ and scribes Farmers & herders Unskilled laborers Slaves • Social classes _____________
Who kept the records for the pharaoh?? The scribe Scribes traveled throughout Egypt keeping records of great and small details. Only boys became scribes and they began their study around the age of 10. They chanted passages aloud to improve reading skills. Then they spent hours writing out lessons and stories over and over. If their attention wandered, they ran the risk of being beaten.
The after life
Sun god Main god RA
The pharaoh not only was a political leader but also had great religious powers as well. Egyptians believed that the Pharaoh was a child of the sun god Ra. Description:Ra was the almost universally-worshipped king of the gods and all-father of creation; the main god. A sun god, he was said to command the chariot that rode across the sky during the day. A king, he was the patron of the pharaoh. Ra is the most central god of the Egyptian pantheon.
Religious beliefs There will be resurrection after death Judgment in the afterlife is based on the lives people lived on earth If you led a good life you would receive eternal happiness If you led a bad life you would receive eternal punishment The divine presence is everywhere
We think Egyptians believed in the afterlife because they buried their food and treasures with the dead bodies and they built tombs for their pharaohs.
Pharaoh- Son of Ra- all power Eternal life- resurrection- put treasure & food in tomb- built tombs (pyramids) Judgment based on their lives on earth good- eternal rewards bad- eternal punishment • Religion _________ • divine presence is everywhere
Osiris In power, he was second only to his father, Ra, and was the leader of the gods on earth. He was the husband of Isis. After Osiris was killed, Isis, resurrected him with the Ritual of Life, which was later given to the Egyptians so that they could give eternal life to all their dead. In the underworld, Osiris sits on a great throne, where he is praised by the souls of the just. All those who pass the tests of the underworld become worthy to enter The Blessed Land, that part of the underworld that is like the land of the living, but without sorrow or pain.
The pharaohs were buried in pyramids of many different shapes and sizes from before the beginning of the Old Kingdom to the end of the Middle Kingdom. What were the pyramids made of? Limestone blocks How much did each block weigh? Over 5,000 pounds Pyramids Over 2 million blocks in the Great Pyramid Pyramids Pyramids Pyramids
Why were the pyramids built? To serve as tombs for pharaohs
Bent Pyramid • Constructed in Egypt during the reign of King Snefru • Constructed in two stages. • Gets its name from the bent form
Constructed of small, almost brick-sized stones Stones laid in vertical courses and inward-leaning to create the sloped sides. Gets name from the unusual shape Bent Pyramid
Giza Plateau • Each side of each Pyramid lines up precisely east-west or north-south
Pyramid complex at Giza • The sphinx guards the pyramids • A temple is found on a harbor at the edge of the Nile Valley. • From the temple, the king’s body was first brought by boat. • A long, covered causeway connects all three pyramids to the temple • Pyramid is found to the west of the temple.
Khufu’s Pyramid • Khufu ruled for about 23 years • Each block weighed 5,000 pounds-- had to be transported over 1/2 mile • Only Pyramid with passages inside and underneath • Once finished, the workers had to seal it and leave through the escape shaft
Pyramid of Khufu Look on page 83 in textbook
GREAT PYRAMID • 480.6 ft tall • Taller than a 40 story building • Covers area greater than 10 football fields
Khufu’s solar barque • 1,224 separate components: • cedarwood planking • 12 oars--10 along sides, 2 large at the stern • ropes of halfa grass • wooden dowels and battens • copper staples • 144-feet-long • Timbers are 95 percent original
Pyramid of Khafre • Second to his father Khufu's Pyramid in size • 695 feet on a side at the base • 450 feet high (originally 473 feet). • Built on higher ground at a steeper angle (about 53°) • Appears taller
Pharaoh’s tomb • Believed it was necessary to preserve a body to allow the soul to survive • Pyramids used as the final resting places for their monarchs
Built as tombs • many different shapes and sizes • Each side lines up precisely east-west or north-south • Giza plateau; • 1.Pyramid of Khufu-ruled about 23 years • * over 2 million blocks- each 5,000 pounds • (transported over ½ mile) • *Only Pyramid with passages inside and underneath • * Sealed-left through escape shaft • 2. Khafre-Second in size • 695 feet (side), • 450 feet high (originally 473 feet). • Built on higher ground at a steeper angle (about 53°) • Appears taller • 3. Sphinx-guards the pyramids • 4. temple- pyramids to the west of the temple • pyramids _________