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  Geant4 Geometry on a GPU. - Dhruva tirumala bukkapatnam. Introduction. Outline & goals of project Geant4 for GPU Overview of GPUs GPGPU paradigm Stream processing Uses kernels Starting point Testing Progress. GPU limitations. Avoid Conditionals

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  Geant4 Geometry on a GPU


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    1.   Geant4 Geometry on a GPU - Dhruvatirumalabukkapatnam

    2. Introduction • Outline & goals of project • Geant4 for GPU • Overview of GPUs • GPGPU paradigm • Stream processing • Uses kernels • Starting point • Testing • Progress

    3. GPU limitations • Avoid Conditionals • As far as possible all threads must execute same code • Threads dispatched in warps • Within a warp, no threads will "get ahead" of any others • Memory transfer latency • Global memory access slow • Use shared (cache-like) memory and texture memory.

    4. Platform: OpenCL/CUDA • OpenCL • Open source, freely available • From the Khronos group • Designed to work GPU, CPU and DSP  • CUDA • Introduced by nVidia before OpenCL. • Easy to understand C like syntax • Macros • Span OpenCL and CUDA – see work of Otto

    5. Platform : Other • Gpuocelot • Emulate CUDA on other platforms • Still immature. • Potential advantages – No rewrite; Debugging; Speed • openMP, openACC …

    6. Previous Work: Otto Seiskari (2010) • Port of core of Navigation exists • 5 types of solids: box, orb, tubs, cons, polycone • Physics volumes: only placements • Has “normal” and “voxel” navigation • Defines clones of Geant4 classes through structs. • Without physics • Uses Macros to span OpenCL and CUDA

    7. Previous Work: G4VPhysicalVolume typedefstruct G4VPhysicalVolume { G4RotationMatrix frot; G4ThreeVector ftrans; GEOMETRYLOC G4LogicalVolume *flogical; // The logicalvolume // representing the // physical and tracking attributes of // the volume GEOMETRYLOC G4LogicalVolume *flmother; // The current mother logical volume } G4VPhysicalVolume;

    8. My Work: Goals • Initially to simulate e- and Gamma particle interactions • Two implementations exist • We are in touch with the French team and have requested code of gamma & e- physics • New focus: voxel navigation – critical for HEP • to improve the performance of the navigation code. • extend the functionality to additional solids

    9. My Work : First steps • Get existing code to run • Compilation errors • System – • ATI Mobility Radeon 5700 • AMD APP SDK 2.7 with OpenCL 1.2 on Ubuntu 12.04 • Error: kernel arguments can't be declared with types bool/half/size_t/ptrdiff_t/intptr_t/uintptr_t/pointer-to-pointer: __global G4VPhysicalVolume *worldVolumeAndGeomBuffer

    10. My Work : First Steps • Code ran on another system • Difference was in OpenCL version 1.1 • Specifications -: • ATI Mobility Radeon5xxx • AMD APP SDK 2.5 • OpenCL 1.1

    11. My Work : Debugging the code Code compiles with OpenCL 1.1 Problem with pointers on GPU CPU GPU Geometry start G4VPhysicalVolume G4LogicalVolume Geometry start G4VPhysicalVolume G4LogicalVolume X 0001 X0002 X0050 X 1000 X1002 X1050 X 0001 X0002 X0050 X 0001 X0002 X0050 X 0060 X0061 X0062 X 1060 X1061 X1062

    12. My Work : Debugging the code • Solved the problem • Relocation on GPU • Move pointer offsets • Calculate new addresses • New way of getting address • (int) starting_buffer • 64-bit compatibility doubtful • Both methods confirmed to work • Confirmation by testing

    13. My Work : Creating Tests • Testing procedure • Allocate buffer on GPU • Add test integers to struct definition • Assign values to these ints on CPU • Implement/Modify kernel • Move these ints into buffer on GPU • Transfer back • Compare • Even with tests, debugging with OpenCL can be hard

    14. My Work : Automating Tests • Created a set of tests • Check for Geometry – • Confirm offsets of pointers on GPU • Confirm density matches • PhysVol->LogicalVol->Solid->Material->Density • Check Distance – • Basic check. • Confirms step == distance moved • Automated with Macros • Tests are Solid basis for future improvements

    15. My Work : Optimisation • Challenge- • Avoid overhead of Switch statement for solids ( for ‘Virtual’ call ) • Different threads cannot run different code • To get performance all must work on the same type of solid • New algorithm- • Threads execute more common code • Calculate steps, one solid type at a time. • Uses fast local (shared) mem • Implemented as a New type of navigation

    16. My Work : Optimisation Code tested and run with OpenCL 1.1 with AMD APP SDK. Code not yet tested for compatibility with CUDA Code still has to be profiled to check for performance gains.

    17. My Work : CUDA v/s OpenCL Recently got access to an Nvidia GTX 680 card. ( courtesy FelicePantaleo ) Was able to easily configure CUDA code to run. Some discrepancies in results between the two versions. Even the legacy versions of the code have this error. Normal navigation does not compile for both platforms.

    18. Challenges Algorithms may have to be altered OpenCL can be challenging. CUDA is more C-like OpenCL and gpuocelot not easily debugged.

    19. Challenges • New tools from AMD should help ease the problem • Good support for Windows. • gDebugger, APP Profiler .. • Code not tested for • Compatibility with newer versions of OpenCL

    20. The way forward • The next steps for the project- • Support more (all?) of Geant4 geometry definition • More tests • Documentation • If the Physics definition from French team can be used, we might be able to run one complete example on the GPU

    21. Thank YouQuestions?