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THE INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP“TSUNAMI HAZARD MITIGATION AND RISK ASSESSMENT”Organised byIUGG Tsunami Commission (IUGG/TC)International Coordination Group for the Tsunami Warning System in the South Pacific (ICG/ITSU)NATIONAL EMERGENCY OFFICE - CHILESANTIAGO, CHILE29-30th SEPTEMBER 2005____________________________REVISION OF THE TSUNAMI SUPPORT PLANFOR THE REPUBLIC OF FIJIBy

Lasarusa Vuetibau (Government of the Republic of Fiji, Ministry of Lands and Mineral Resources, Mineral Resources Department – Seismology Section, Suva, Fiji)Jack Rynn (Centre for Earthquake Research in Australia, Brisbane, Australia)Joeli Rokovada (Government of the Republic of Fiji, Ministry of Regional Development, National Disaster Management Office, Suva, Fiji)

MRD-S/CERA/NDMO SEP 05

the tsunami hazard for fiji
THE TSUNAMI HAZARD FOR FIJI
  • Fiji’s location in the Pacific Basin makes it susceptible to both earthquake and tsunami.
  • Fiji contains many small islands with coastal areas heavily populated by communities.
  • Most major cities and towns are located on the shorelines.
  • Ports of Entry – Suva, Lautoka, Labasa, Savu Savu
  • Agricultural cropping and practices are done at low lying and flat areas close to shorelines – both subsistence farming and export.
  • Hence, vulnerability to tsunami impact is high.
  • Historical record shows that several tsunamis have impacted upon Fiji Islands.
  • Tsunamigenic sources – local, regional, distant
  • Most devastating 1953 Suva earthquake and tsunami. Damage to Southeast Viti Levu – City of Suva and Environs

MRD-S/CERA/NDMO SEP 05

slide3
CATALOGUE OF TSUNAMIS IN FIJI(IN PROGRESS)TSUNAMIGENIC SOURCES – EARTHQUAKE INDUCED SUBMARINE LANDSLIDE

MRD-S/CERA/NDMO SEP 05

slide4
FIJI TSUNAMI SUPPORT PLAN (1)incorporatingFiji Tsunami Warning SystemCommunications PlanResponse Plan
  • Tsunami Support Plan currently in preparation (MRD – Seismology / CERA / NDMO)
  • One component of the SERMP – Suva Earthquake Risk Management Project
  • Through the SUVEQ 2002 earthquake and tsunami exercise

MRD-S/CERA/NDMO SEP 05

fiji tsunami support plan 2
FIJI TSUNAMI SUPPORT PLAN (2)
  • Being developed since 1994 under the SERMP
  • Initial Draft Plan proposed 1999-2000
  • Revised Draft Plan currently in preparation 2003
  • Impetus as a result of 1953 Suva earthquake and tsunami and recent devastating tsunamis in other Pacific Island Countries.
  • Fiji recognises the vulnerability of its islands to potential tsunami impact.
  • Vulnerability of Suva – capital city, hub of national business and commerce, home of Diplomatic Corps, hub for other Pacific Island Countries
  • Classifies LOCAL, REGIONAL, DISTANT tsunamis.
  • Incorporates:
    • Fiji Tsunami Warning System
      • Planned “TREMORS” system
    • Communications Plan
      • Per NOAA Communications Plan 1996, 1999
      • Linking with PTWC
      • Internal Fiji communications
    • Response Plan
      • Contacts for key agencies
      • Key agencies responses
      • Communities responses
      • Evacuation
      • Emergency relief assistance
      • International assistance

MRD-S/CERA/NDMO SEP 05

fiji tsunami support plan 3
FIJI TSUNAMI SUPPORT PLAN (3)
  • Includes “Information Resource” Attachments:
    • Scientific information
    • Catalogue of Fiji tsunamis
    • Instrumentation in Fiji
    • Awareness
    • Community education
    • Training
    • Post-tsunami field surveys
    • Damage assessments
    • Bibliography (including maps and charts)
    • Tsunami modeling
  • Cognisance has been taken of:
    • Assistance from PTWC and ITIC, Honolulu
    • Oahu (Hawaii) Civil Defense Agency Tsunami Planning
    • Hawaii Civil Defense Agency
    • UNESCO Pacific Tsunami Warning Master Plan
    • British Columbia (Canada) Plan 2001
  • TSP to be integrated into:
    • FIJI NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT ACT OF 1998
    • FIJI NATURAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN OF 1995

MRD-S/CERA/NDMO SEP05

1953 suva earthquake and tsunami 2
1953 SUVA EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI (2)

TSUNAMI EFFECTS

  • Tsunami Effects
    • wave action

(SE Viti Levu, Suva Harbor, Lacala Bay, Tailevu, Coral Coast, Bega, Vatulele, Kadavu, Ovalau, Koro, Southern Vanua Levu)

    • Reef damage

(Suva, Lami, Coral Coast)

    • Inundation

(Suva City foreshores, Lami, Suva Peninsula, Vesari, Navua, Naitonitoni, Lomary)

    • River bores

(Navua, Rewa, Waideleli, Deuba)

  • Tsunami Damage
    • Walu Bay Suva industrial area
    • Infrastructure
    • Buildings flooded
    • Roads and bridges
    • Villages and settlements
    • Gardens and crops
    • Submarine cable (international communications)
  • Human Toll
    • 5 deaths

(Suva Harbor 2, Nasese 1, Kadavu 1)

  • References : Houtz (1962)

Houtz and Wellman (1962)

Prasad, Rynn and Kaloumaira (2000)

Rynn and Vuetibau (2003)

MRD-S/CERA/NDMO SEP 05

fiji tsunami warning system 1 current
FIJI TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM (1)CURRENT
  • Simple non-instrumental TWS in operation
  • Utilises PTWC messages sent to Fiji Meteorological Service (Nadi), Mineral Resources Department – Seismology Section (Suva) and National Disaster Management Office as a cooperative 24 hour service.
  • Warnings are based on PTWC tsunami travel time charts into terms of the provisional warning considerations (per CERA SERMP Report, 1997; Prasad et al, 2000):
fiji tsunami warning system 2 potential tsunamigenic sources earthquake
FIJI TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM (2)POTENTIAL TSUNAMIGENIC SOURCESEARTHQUAKE

MRD-S/CERA/NDMO SEP 03

fiji tsunami warning system future
FIJI TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEMFUTURE
  • Plan to develop the “TREMORS” (instrumental) tsunami warning system at MRD – Seismology Section (Suva)
  • Proposal currently in preparation
  • To operate in cooperation with PTWC messages
  • To operate on 24 hour basis

(Fiji Meteorological Service – MRD Seismology link)

  • To link with the NDMO in accord with the Act of 1998 and Plan of 1995

MRD-S/CERA/NDMO SEP 05

impressions of submarine landslides
Impressions of submarine landslides

SUVA

1953

Earthquake

Epicenter

Tsunami

Attack!

Fault

Line trending

North east

Fan-shape

of submarine landslides

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Suva - Navua 1953 Earthquake Triggered this Tsunami which attacked the Suva Harbor 8 minutes after the Earthquake

4m high

slide16

DAMAGE TO THE SUVA WHARF CAUSED BY THE TSUNAMI

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