The “Roaring Twenties”. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SclJ94h2oyQ. The 1920 Election. Wilson’s idealism and Treaty of Versailles led many Americans to vote for the Republican, Warren Harding… US turned inward and feared anything that was European…. Republican Policies.
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Wilson’s idealism and Treaty of Versailles led many Americans to vote for the Republican, Warren Harding…
US turned inward and feared anything that was European…
A Republican Decade – Republican Conservatives gain control of the White House and Congress and terminate the Era of the Progressives. The Part believes that the Economy and the Nation are better off if Business took the lead again. However, regulation will exist.
Warren Harding –“Return to Normalcy” (1921-1923)
Policies favored Isolationism and disarmament (WashingtonConference), and limits on Immigration.
Selected mostly highly qualified Administration that included Herbert Hoover, Andrew Mellon, and William Howard Taft. Some selections were poor and it lead to corruption and scandal…see TeapotDome.
Looked to reduce Income Tax, Raise Tariffs, and set up the Bureau of the Budget.
Calvin Coolidge – “Keep Cool with Coolidge” (1923-1929)
Idea was to bring back theory of Laissez-Faire and let businesses run themselves.
“The business of America is business.”
Cut back on Government spending (no bonus for war veterans).
REPUBLICAN ECONOMY SUPPORTED LAISSEZ FAIRE AND BIG BUSINESS……….
Lower Taxes Less Federal Higher Strong Spending Tariffs National Economy
Fordney-McCumber Tariff---1923Hawley-Smoot Tariff ---1930 raised the tariff to an unbelievable 60%!!!
Herbert Hoover – Run off of “Coolidge Prosperity” (1929-1933)
Continued economic boom due to various advancements in technology such as time-and-motion studies, scientific management, use of oil and electricity, and the perfection of the Ford AssemblyLine.
Offer businesses tax cuts and fail to enforce anti-trust laws.
Decline of Union membership – “WelfareCapitalism”
Consumerism – Consumer Economy– Rise of advertising and ability of people to buy new items such as appliances, automobiles, and music. Also, consumers are presented with new ways of purchasing items such as credit and installment plans.
Entertainment – New Jazz music played on radios and phonographs. The radio and movie industry boomed with companies like NBC and CBS and stars like Greta Garbo.
PopularHeroes – Babe Ruth, Jack Dempsey, Jim Thorpe, Charles Lindbergh, and Amelia Earhart.
Literature – “Lost Generation” – Called this because their work expressed dissatisfaction with earlier ideals and materialism (includes Sinclair Lewis, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Hemingway).
Role of Women– Saw no real changes except for those who engaged in new activities and increased promiscuity. Examples include “Flappers.”
Harlem Renaissance– Rise in African American popular culture during the 20’s in urban areas like Harlem. Actors, artists, writers, poets, singers, and musicians all expressed a range of emotions. Examples include Langston Hughes, Duke Ellington, and Louie Armstrong.
Art – Form follows function – Functionalism. Includes Frank Lloyd Wright.
Schenck v. U.S.– Suspension of right in country experiences a “clear & present danger.”
Palmer Raidstarget Communists, Socialist, and Anarchists at feverish rate.
Sacco & Vanzetti– Scapegoat Trial against two immigrants – both convicted & executed.
LaborStrikes – BostonPoliceStrike – Coolidge uses National Guard to squash union activity.
Steel&CoalStrikes – (UMW) Government used injunctions to stop strikes and nullify labor laws.
Attorney General Mitchell Palmer
Teapot Dome Scandal– Under Harding, Cabinet members (Fall/Daugherty) accept bribes and payoff for contract to drill oil on Government property.
Prohibition (Volstead Act)– Gives rise to bootleggers, speakeasies and organized crime – Al Capone. Prohibition was not repealed until 1933 21st Amendment.
Rise in Different Religious Views– (A) Modernism – Faith in new ways-historical and critical view of Bible (support Darwin’s Evolution) (B) Fundamentalism – Bible must be accepted literally…Revivalists on the radio.
Scopes Trial– Court action over the teaching of the Theory of Evolution in School – Bryan/Fundamentalist vs. ACLU/Scopes/Darrow.
Elliot Ness, part of the Untouchables
Chicago gangster during Prohibition who controlled the “bootlegging” industry.
Agent with the U.S. Treasury Department's Prohibition Bureau during a time when bootlegging was rampant throughout the nation.
Detroit police inspecting equipment found in a hidden underground brewery during the prohibition era.
The "Noble" Experiement
John T. Scopes
Respected high school biology teacher arrested in Dayton, Tennessee for teaching Darwin’s Theory of Evolution.
Famous trial lawyer who represented Scopes
William J. Bryan
Sec. of State for President Wilson, ran for president three times, turned evangelical leader. Represented the
Small town in the south became protective against the encroachment of modern times and secular teachings.
Nativism, Immigration Quotas, and KKK– After WWI, many feared the influx of “NEW” immigrants because of questions of loyalty, employment, religion, and possible problems. The government set up 2 quota laws in 1921 and 1924 that limited the amount of immigrants coming from Asia & Eastern/Southern Europe.
KKK – “Red Summer” leads to riots and increased tensions between whites & blacks…revival of Klan….targeted Catholics, African Americans, Jews, Communist etc. This is the popular version of the Klan with white hoods, lynching, and cross burnings.
Rise of the KKK was due to the ever changing of a traditional America.
Fighting the Discrimination –
NAACPtried to force Congress to pass anti-lynching laws and Marcus Garvey formed the UNIA, which focused on black nationalism/pride, separatism, economic self-sufficiency, and the Back-to-Africa movement. Also involved during this time was W.E.B. Du Bois.