Chapter 18 Foreign Policy and Democracy
The Nature of Foreign Policy • Foreign policy: programs and policies that determine America’s relations with other nations and foreign entities • American foreign policy arenas: • Diplomacy • Military and security policy • International human rights policy • Economic policy
Goals of Foreign Policy Three main goals of U.S. foreign policy • Security • Economic prosperity • Creation of a better world
Goals of Foreign Policy Security • Traditionally concerned with dangers posed by hostile foreign nations • Military and regime threats at home and abroad • Today, threats posed by nonstate actors • Organized groups that are not nation-states • Such groups attempt to play a role in the international system via rogue means
Goals of Foreign Policy • Physical and online security • Protection from attacks on U.S. citizens and property, both domestic and abroad • Security extends beyond physical borders, military installations, and/or embassies. • Technology leads to new concerns about intelligence hacks, protecting power grids, massive fraud/theft on public.
Goals of Foreign Policy • Isolationism: desire to avoid involvement in the affairs of other nations • Most of nineteenth century isolationism was dominant U.S. foreign policy. • Much easier in era when United States was not yet a military or economic world power
Goals of Foreign Policy • World War I & II ended isolationism. • Isolation was replaced with deterrence. • Deterrence: develop and maintain military strength as means of discouraging attack • So strong that no enemy dares engage • Point of military buildup is so that weapons are never actually used • Stockpiling weapons for invasion is NOT a deterrence strategy.
Goals of Foreign Policy • Preventive war (preemption): policy of striking first when a nation fears that a foreign foe is planning hostile action • Appeasement: effort to forestall war by giving in to the demands of a hostile power
Goals of Foreign Policy • The Cold War (1940s–1990s) • After WWII, the U.S. and USSR became the world’s two superpowers. • Each was capable of destroying the world many times over with their nuclear arsenals. • Never fought one another directly (a “hot war”) • Competed for the allegiances of other countries • Nations all over the globe allied themselves with the United States or USSR (democracy vs. communism).
Goals of Foreign Policy • Deterrence assumes certainty and rationality. • Works for countries (except rogue states) but not for nonstate actors: • USSR and U.S. both feared global nuclear war. Neither would directly attack the other. • Terrorist groups not fearful of losing life among their own group members/followers
Goals of Foreign Policy • U.S. international economic policies promote prosperity by: • Expanding domestic employment • Ex: Toyota factories in six U.S. states • Maintaining access to foreign natural resources at favorable costs • Promoting foreign investment in the United States • Lowering prices that citizens pay for goods and services
Goals of Foreign Policy • Trade policy • The United States wants to promote exports and discourage imports. • Tariffs: taxes on imports • Countries that reciprocate on low tariffs are granted “most favored nation status.”
Goals of Foreign Policy • World trade • North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA): eliminated tariffs on imports between America, Canada, and Mexico • World Trade Organization (WTO): promotes free trade and provides a dispute mechanism for members
Goals of Foreign Policy • International humanitarian policies • International environmental policies • International human rights policies • International peacekeeping • These policies can range in priority depending on the other security and trade issues associated with a given nation.
Goals of Foreign Policy • The United States has been on the forefront of human rights issues. • U.S. constitutional protections against discrimination based on race, gender, political beliefs and religion • Other nations often look to America to take leadership on human rights issues, even if only in public statements. • Economic interest can take priority though.
Goals of Foreign Policy • Humanitarian efforts include peacekeeping. • Sending troops to keep other nations from fighting one another • Efforts to protect civilians from starvation, homelessness, and abuse • Frequently joined by other nations in these efforts • Humanitarian relief during natural disasters (funds, military, medical, logistical support)
Who Makes American Foreign Policy? • President dominates foreign policy matters • Can directly set foreign policy strategies • Ambassador and military appointments • Relationships with foreign heads of state • Congress has a role, but less influential • Courts, interest groups, public opinion also play a role • Highly charged issues like Iraq War
Who Makes American Foreign Policy? • Presidents can be tremendously influential. • Head of state • Ability to initiate treaties and agreements • Place senior officials who oversee bureaucracy • Have enormous resources available for policymaking • Constitutional authorities uniquely position the president for foreign policy leadership.
Who Makes American Foreign Policy? • Major governmental players in foreign policy • Secretaries of State, Defense, and Treasury • Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) • Director of CIA • Director of National Security Council (NSC) • President appoints all of these positions. • Hence, foreign policy can easily reflect a president’s agenda (at least more readily than domestic policy).
Who Makes American Foreign Policy? • Constitution: Congress has the power to declare war. • Has only done so five times: War of 1812, Mexican War (1846), Spanish American War (1898), WW I (1917), WW II (1941) • Congress controls funding for war. • Rarely refuses to fund military actions the president has initiated. • Politically very unpopular to vote against funds associated with American military troops at war
Who Makes American Foreign Policy? • Interest groups • Economic interest groups • National origin groups • Example: Jewish Americans with respect to Israel; Cuban Americans • Human rights groups • Media • Negative media can lead to negative pubic opinion
Who Makes American Foreign Policy? • In times of foreign crisis: • The presidency is at its strongest. • Congress not designed to act quickly • Media and public look to singular voice, leader on crisis matters • The circle of influence is very constrained. • Foreign actors can limit options open to U.S. policy makers.
Instruments of Modern American Foreign Policy • Diplomacy: the representation of a government to other foreign governments • American civilian jobs with the foreign service (State Department) require extensive skill sets, and process is very selective • United Nations: comprised of 192 countries, each of which gets one vote
Instruments of Modern American Foreign Policy • Economic aid • America provides $30b a year to other countries • “Carrot” (positive incentive, benefits) to get countries to take desired actions that U.S. prefers • Economic sanctions • “Stick” (negative incentive, penalties) to get countries to take desired actions that U.S. prefers • Trade embargoes, bans on investment, bans on travel, freezing of assets held in banks
Instruments of Modern American Foreign Policy • Bank for reconstruction and development (World Bank) • Mechanism for governments to lend money to one another in ways that private-sector markets could not • International Monetary Fund (IMF) • Helps stressed nations borrow short-term funds
Who Serves in the U.S. Military? CHAPTER 18
Gender U.S. Military U.S. Population 14%Female 86% 51% Female 86%Male 49%Male 49% SOURCES: Department of Defense, “Population Representation in the Military Services, 2010.” U.S. Census, 2010.
Race / Ethnicity U.S. Military U.S. Population 66%White 3%Asian 64% White 5%Asian 66% 16% Black 5%Other 13%Black 3%Other 10%Hispanic 16%Hispanic 64% SOURCES: Department of Defense, “Population Representation in the Military Services, 2010.” U.S. Census, 2010.
Education New enlistees, 2010 U.S. Military U.S. Population 98% High school graduates 86%High school graduates 98% 86% SOURCES: Department of Defense, “Population Representation in the Military Services, 2010.” U.S. Census, 2010.
Geographic Origin U.S. military new enlistees, 2012 U.S. population 12.4% 18% 23% 19.7% 23% 22% 42.2% 37% Northeast 12.4% Midwest 19.7% Northeast 18% Midwest 22% South 42.2% West 23% South 37% West 23% SOURCES: Department of Defense, “Population Representation in the Military Services, 2010.” U.S. Census, 2010.
Instruments of Modern American Foreign Policy • Collective security • OAS, NATO, ANZUS, SATO • An armed attack against any of its members “shall be considered as an attack against all …” • Arbitration: agreement negotiated by neutral third party • “Soft power” as opposed to the military • Virtually all international contracts have arbitration.
Public Opinion Poll Should the United States engage in trade or offer any kind of military support to nations with well-documented human rights abuses that are contrary to democracy? • Yes, the U.S. should do business with such nations if it benefits the United States. • No, the United States should not trade or offer assistance to nations that are antidemocratic in any manner.
Public Opinion Poll Should Congress be required to declare war before the United States engages in armed conflicts? • Yes, there should be formal declarations of war by Congress that signal the will of the people and the nation to engage in the conflict. • No, formal declarations are not needed and serve no real purpose.
Public Opinion Poll Which foreign policy tactic would be the most successful to convince the largest number of nations to adopt policies favorable to the United States? • Economic benefits and/or sanctions • Military threats • Diplomacy (dialogue, negotiation)
Public Opinion Poll Should the United States adopt a more isolationist foreign policy approach as it did a century ago? • Yes, the United States should not intervene or engage with other nations much, if at all. • No, the United States must be engaged with the rest of the world and viewed as a major power/player by other nations.
Public Opinion Poll What is the biggest foreign policy concern to American national interests? • Terrorist threats • Rising economic powers make the American economy weaker. • Cyber hacks and attacks that compromise American state secrets (e.g., WikiLeaks)
Chapter 18: Foreign Policy and Democracy • Quizzes • Flashcards • Outlines • Exercises wwnorton.com/we-the-people
Following this slide, you will find additional images, figures, and tables from the textbook.