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The Unstable Transition in Egypt. By: Drew Constable Brittani Roksiewicz Victoria Trimble . What is the Arab Spring?.

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the unstable transition in egypt

The Unstable Transition in Egypt

By: Drew Constable

Brittani Roksiewicz

Victoria Trimble

what is the arab spring
What is the Arab Spring?
  • The Arab Spring is a political movement that swept through the Middle East and Northern Africa beginning in 2011, it started in the country of Tunisia, and led to leaders being forced from power in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya and Yemen but have also caused uprisings and protest throughout the Middle East and Northern Africa.
slide3

Government overthrown

Sustained civil disorder and governmental changes

Protests and governmental changes

Major protests

Minor protests

tunisia
Tunisia
  • The Tunisian Revolution, or the Jasmine Revolution is said to be the root of the Arab Spring
  • Due to growing protest and uprisings in the small country of Tunisia, its President, Zine al-Abidine Ben Al was forced to step down in January of 2011
  • The “spark” of the revolution in Tunisia was when Mohammed Bouazizi, a 26-year-old fruit-and-vegetable vendor set himself on fire in front of a local municipal office in protest after being mistreated by police.
muhammad hosni el sayed mubarak
Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak
  • 4thPresident of Egypt
  • Appointed Vice President in 1975
  • President from October 1981 to

February 2011

  • Attempted to appease protestors
reasons for protests
Reasons for Protests
  • Government abuse and corruption
  • “Vampire Economy”
    • Only a few could flourish while the rest struggled
  • Police brutality
  • State of emergency laws
  • Lack of free elections and free speech
  • Censorship
  • Inspiration from Tunisia
so how did it start
So How Did It Start?
  • The Egyptian revolution began on January 25, 2011
  • “rooted in the waves of workers’ strikes and protests; the explosion of the Internet as a rallying megaphone for dissent … and a growing willingness by reporters, writers, and human-rights groups to tell the truth in the face of great risks.”
  • Wael Abbas
the day of rage
“The Day of Rage”
  • January 25th
  • National Police Day
  • Internet shut down on Jan 27, but not reported till the 28
friday of anger
“Friday of Anger”
  • Hundreds of thousands demonstrate in Egyptian cities after Friday prayer
  • Mubarak announces dismissal of cabinet
    • Yet refuses to step down himself, in hope that reforms will appease the people
game theory
Game Theory

Mubarak

The Egyptian People

friday of departure
“Friday of Departure”
  • February 11th, 2011; 6pm
  • Vice President Omar Suleiman announces Mubarak’s resignation
  • Supreme Council of the Armed Forces is given control of the government
actions of egypt s new government
Actions of Egypt’s New Government
  • This past week Egypt has officially breached it’s Natural Gas contract with Israel; The 1979 Camp David Peace Accord
    • Political and religious motives are behind the interrupted contract.
  • Egypt’s transitioning government is ready to re-establish its relations with Iran and neighboring countries.
    • New foreign minister, Nabil Elaraby, concludes “Egypt does not consider Tehran an enemy, and says Cairo is opening a new page with all countries, including Iran.”
    • Previously, Mubarak saw Iran as a threat to the Middle East
reactions to the 1979 camp david peace accord
Reactions to The 1979 Camp David Peace Accord
  • Protestors question why Egypt is selling gas to Israel, their previous enemies, at a cheap price and risking Egypt’s overall wealth.
  • Hosni Mubarak agreed to the treaty with Israel as strategic leverage with the United States and to illustrate “good faith.”
  • Egyptian citizens are behind the 14 recent pipeline bombs
possible motives for egypt re establishing ties with iran
Possible Motives for Egypt Re-Establishing Ties with Iran
  • Help stabilize and provide security to the Middle East region
  • Improve their position with Israel and the United States (potential peace keepers?)
  • Bargaining with the United States to convince them to continue their financial support
dissatisfaction of the supreme council of the armed forces
Dissatisfaction of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces
  • In March 2011, shortly after Mubarak stepped down female protestors reported virginity testing by the SCAF
  • International monitors were prohibited during the parliamentary elections last year. The decision made on behalf of the SCAF had voters concerned about credible elections.
  • Hostility between the Muslim Brotherhood and the SCAF (March 25, 2012).The brotherhood alleges that the Armed Forces are influencing the upcoming presidential elections
  • The sour relation between the Muslim Brotherhood and the SCAF could potentially deter the SCAF from transferring half of the power
elections
Elections
  • Beginning in November 2011, Egypt held its first elections of the post-Mubarak era, voting for the members of the People’s Assembly
  • The elections to determine Egypt's first-ever freely elected president will be held May 23 and 24
  • It is currently unknown when the newly elected president will assume power, but the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces has said they want a new constitution drafted before they transfer power.
thank you
Thank you.

Are there any questions?

bibliography
Bibliography
  • "Arab Spring." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 24 Apr. 2012. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1784922/Arab-Spring>.
  • "Jasmine Revolution." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 24 Apr. 2012. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1753072/Jasmine-Revolution>.
  • “Timeline: Egypt’s Revolution - Middle East - Al Jazeera English.” Web. 24 Apr. 2012.
  • “Before the Revolution.” Web. 24 Apr. 2012.
  • "ḤosnīMubārak." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 24 Apr. 2012. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/395776/Hosni-Mubarak>.
  • "Egypt." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 24 Apr. 2012. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/180382/Egypt>.
  • “Egypt Ends Israel’s Gas Supply: It’s Political AND Religious - New York Foreign Affairs | Examiner.com.” Web. 26 Apr. 2012.
  • “Egypt’s New Government Ready to Renew Country’s Ties with Iran - The National.” Web. 26 Apr. 2012.
  • “New Egyptian Government Mulls Halting Gas Sales to Israel /Embassy | FNMA.OB Message Board Posts.” Web. 26 Apr. 2012.
picture and video bibliography
Picture and Video Bibliography
  • “Arab Spring - Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia.” Web. 24 Apr. 2012.
  • “The 45 Most Powerful Images Of 2011.” Web. 24 Apr. 2012.
  • “Hosni Mubarak - Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia.” Web. 24 Apr. 2012.
  • “POLICE BRUTALITY IN EGYPT - REVOLUTION 2011 - YouTube.” Web. 26 Apr. 2012.