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Civil Rights/Civil Liberties. A Rapid Review of the facts. Civil Right are:. Positive acts by the government designed to prevent discrimination and provide equality before the law ( expansion of government power to increase rights of ppl and groups) (Think “Green” means Go).

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Civil rights civil liberties

Civil Rights/Civil Liberties

A Rapid Review of the facts


Civil right are
Civil Right are:

  • Positive acts by the government designed to prevent discrimination and provide equality before the law (expansion of government power to increase rights of ppl and groups)

  • (Think “Green” means Go)


When it all began
When it all began:

  • After US civil war, with African Americans striving to gain political, social and economic equality.

  • Due Process as guaranteed by the

  • 14th Amendment


What was occurring then
What was occurring then

  • Discriminatory practice were used by the states to prevent political participation by African Americans. These practices included Jim Crow laws and black codes


Selective incorporation
Selective Incorporation

  • In order to ensure these rights, ppl take the state to court, the courts decide the states are wrong (sometimes) and the people gain the rights. Each state and each right has to go through the same process. (hence the name “selective” instead of “Universal” incorporation.


A positive step forward in 1954
A positive step forward in 1954

  • Brown v. Board of Ed.

  • Supreme Court overturned the Plessy case nullifying the “separate but equal” clause.


Civil liberties are those which belong to everyone and are guaranteed by
Civil Liberties are those which belong to everyone and are guaranteed by:

  • The Constitution

  • Bill of Rights

  • 14th Amendment

  • Legislative actions

  • Court decisions


The establishment clause
The Establishment Clause guaranteed by:

  • Found within the 1st amendment

  • Has been interpreted to mean that there is a separation between the church and the state, preventing govt. from supporting religion or one religion over another


The lemon test
The Lemon Test guaranteed by:

  • Established standards for measuring separation of church and state

  • A law must meet three parts to pass the test

  • A: it must have a primarily secular purpose

  • B: its principal effect must neither aid nor inhibit religion

  • C: it must not create excessive entanglement between gov and religion.


The free exercise clause in the 1 st amendment
The Free Exercise Clause in the 1 guaranteed by:st amendment

  • Guarantees the right to practice any religion or no religion at all


Three kinds of speech
Three Kinds of Speech guaranteed by:

  • Pure Speech

  • Symbolic Speech

  • Speech Plus


Pure speech
Pure Speech guaranteed by:

  • The most common form of speech, verbal speech, given the most protection by the courts. (The government tries to restrict speech very seldom.)

  • Verbal speech is usually in front of an audience

  • Includes the expression of thought and opinion before an audience that has chosen to listen


Speech plus
Speech Plus guaranteed by:

  • Actions such as marching or demonstrating

  • Verbal and symbolic speech used together, such as rallying and then picketing

  • May be limited


Symbolic speech
Symbolic Speech guaranteed by:

  • Using actions and symbols to convey and idea rather than words such as burning a flag or a draft card, hanging an effigy.

  • May be subject to government restrictions if it endangers the public.


Restrictions on freedom of speech
Restrictions on Freedom of Speech guaranteed by:

  • One of the first was in 1778-Alien and Sedition Act. Illegal to say anything “false, scandalous, and malicious against the government or it’s officials. (Law expired in 1801)

  • 1901 after Pres. McKinley assassinated congress passed more laws forbidding verbal attacks on the government. (these were later challenged in court)


The big eight
The guaranteed by:BIG Eight

  • Schenck v US (1919) fliers mailed to protest draft (WWl). Declared against the law as they presented a clear and present danger. (this case set the standards for what would and would not be protected speech)

  • Gitlow v New York (1925) protections of free speech applied to the states under the due process clause of the 14th amendment


Big 8 continued
Big 8 continued guaranteed by:

  • Chaplinksy v New Hampshire (1942) Court ruled that first amendment did not protect “fighting words”

  • Tinker v Des Moines (1969) court ruled that wearing black arm bands to protest Vietnam war was symbolic speech and protected

  • Brandenburg v Ohio (1969) “Clear and present danger ruling made less restrictive w/ inflammatory speech can be punished only if there was imminent danger that this speech would incite an illegal act.


Big 8 one more time
Big 8 One More Time guaranteed by:

  • Miller v California (1973) “Miller Tests” sets standards for measuring obsenity.

  • Texas v Johnson (1989) court ruled that flag burning is protected under symbolic speech

  • Reno v ACLU (1997) court ruled the Communications Decency Act unconstitutional b/c it was overly broad and vague in regulating Internet speech.


Right to free speech is not absolute
Right to Free Speech is not ABSOLUTE guaranteed by:

  • Can be regulated if national security is at stake

  • Fighting words and obscenity

  • If the government thinks the speech presents a Clear and Present Danger it can be restricted


Freedom of press
Freedom of Press guaranteed by:

  • Often protected because of it’s relation to freedom of speech.

  • Includes newspapers, magazines, radio, television, and the Internet


Other guarantees
Other Guarantees guaranteed by:

  • Freedom of Assembly

  • Freedom to Petition


Due process clause
Due Process clause guaranteed by:

  • Found in the 5th amendment guarantees for the protection of private property

  • Eminent domain allows the government to take property but only after just compensation to the individual property owner.


No privacy mentioned in the const
No Privacy Mentioned in the Const guaranteed by:

  • No actual mention of “right to privacy” is mentioned in the constitution

  • However, the Supreme Court has ruled that such a right exists under the Constitution]

  • Most refer to the fourth Amendment as the location for the right to privacy


Rights of the accused
Rights of the Accused guaranteed by:

  • The 4th, 5th, 6th, and 8th amendments all protect the rights of those who have been accused of a crime.

  • 14th amendment extends those protections to apply to the states (ncorporation)


Exclusionary rule
Exclusionary Rule guaranteed by:

  • The courts efforts to deter illegal police conduct by barring evidence from getting into the courtroom if it has been obtained in violation of the defendants 4th amendment rights. (Mapp v Ohio 1961)


After the civil war
After the Civil War guaranteed by:

  • Three amendments were passed to ensure the rights of the former slaves

  • 13th amendment abolished slavery

  • 14th amendment defined citizenship, provided for due process and equal protection

  • 15th amendment provided protection for all citizens the right to vote regardless of race or if they had been a slave previously.


Civil rights efforts have advanced other groups
Civil Rights efforts have advanced other groups guaranteed by:

  • Hispanics, Asians, women, those with disabilities all have gained from the civil rights efforts.

  • Equal Employment Opportunity Act prohibits gender discrimination.