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Concrete Formwork. General Requirements Safe – must hold concrete in place until cured. Economical provide desired shape and surface texture Formwork usually cost more than the concrete. Typical formwork Can be wood Steel Aluminum

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Presentation Transcript
slide2
General Requirements
    • Safe – must hold concrete in place until cured.
    • Economical
    • provide desired shape and surface texture
    • Formwork usually cost more than the concrete
slide3
Typical formwork
    • Can be
    • wood
    • Steel
    • Aluminum
    • Must be braced to withstand load (concrete weighs 150pcf)
slide4
Wall form F 11-18
    • Double wales used above and below ties to allow tie to be secured
    • Also need a spreader to keep forms correct distance apart
    • Need to have good bracing at foot of form
  • Ties F 11-19
    • Most common can be broken off just inside concrete – allows for patching
slide5
Column Forms
    • Use column clamps for support/bracing
    • May have windows to making pouring easier
    • F 11-20
    • Slabs
    • F 11- 21 -> 11-25
construction practices
Construction Practices
  • Forms need tight joints
  • Forms need to be aligned and checked for alignment during pour
  • Don’t forget uplift on some types of forms
  • Don’t drop concrete more than 5’
  • Don’t vibrate previously poured concrete too deeply – could cause form failure
  • Carefully remove forms – don’t want surface damage
expansion and control joints
Expansion and control joints
  • Permit differential movement in concrete shapes
    • Concrete shrinkage, temperature change, moisture change, settlement
    • Isolate interior columns from floor slab – cut around column
reinforcing steel
Reinforcing Steel
  • Reinforcing bars
    • Usually deformed (manufactured with ridges to increase bond with concrete)
      • Can be plain or epoxy coated
      • Sized by 1/8th inch and strength of steel
      • T 11-1, F 11-28
reinforcing steel1
Reinforcing Steel
  • Welded wire fabric
    • Common for slabs
    • Smooth or deformed wire
    • WWF is identifier
    • WWF 6x6-4.0x4.0 is a welded wire fabric with 6 inch spacing longitudinally and transversely made of W4 size (0.04 x section area) wire
slide11
Spirals (for columns)
    • 3 standard sizes 3/8 inch, ½ inch, 5/8 inch diameter rods
    • Sprial diameters (outside to outside) 12” minimum to 33” max
    • Pitch from 1.75” – 3.25” (distance from center to center of rod)
placing reinforcing
Placing Reinforcing
  • Rebar goes in areas of tension
  • F 11-29
  • Need to protect rebar from corrosion fire and weather
  • Pg 325 gives min cover
    • Minimum clear distance between parallel bars in columns = 1.5” or 1.5 x max aggregate size
    • For other shapes 1” or 1.333 x max aggregate size
placing reinforcing1
Placing Reinforcing
  • Rebars kept in place by ties
    • F 11-30, 11-31
slide14
QC
  • Common deficiencies
  • Pg 329
  • Inspection and Testing
    • Usually concrete is a fast paced activity
    • Need to inspect product from stockpile to placement and then test for strength, air entrainment, beam flexure