A Critical Time 1776
Why it Matters • Now we have proclaimed independence, now what? We must fight the powerful British army! George has a lot of work ahead
Retreat from New York • June 1776 British fleet sail into New Yorkunder General Howe • Washington was expecting the British fleet • Washington has 20,000 poorly trained soldiers vs. 34,000 trained British soldiers • August 1776 the British drove Washington out of Brooklyn in the Battle of Long Island • Washington leaves New York City with British chasing
Nathan Hale “I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country”
Surprises for the British • December 1776 • British is preparing to take over Philadelphia • Patriots been on run and spirits were low • Many Patriots Deserted.
Thomas paine writes “The Crisis” • “These are the times that try men’s souls. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of his country; but he that stands it now deserves the love and thanks of man and woman” It worked
Crossing the Delaware • December 1776 • Washington led 2400 men across the river in small boats • Attacked Trenton • Victory! • Washington captures 1000 Hessians! • Trickery wins for Americans
Saratoga: A turning point • British General John Burgoyne planned on cutting New England off from the rest of the states • Carrying baggage of his finest personal stuff and supplies running short • General Gates had 6000 men surround Burgoyne and his British force at Saratoga • Burgoyne surrenders on October 17, 1777 • Turning Point of War
Results of the Battle • Ended the idea of an easy victory for British • Ended threat of British in New England • Lifted American’s spirit • Helped convince Europeans that Americans had a chance of winning which encouraged France to enter into war with Britain and help Americans.
French Alliance • Encouraged by Ben Franklin, France enters into war with Britain and to help the Americans • This means fighting on two fronts • Which front do you think Britain is going to place most effort?
European Volunteers Marquis de Lafayette
Thaddeus Kosciusko Helped build forts including West Point
Baron Von Steuben German that helped train the Continental Army
Valley Forge • 1777-78 winter • Built Valley Forge in Pennsylvania • Out in the cold without sufficient food and clothing • British snug in Philladelphia dancing and partying • Women collected food, medicine, warm clothes and ammunition to help soldiers including Martha Washington • Continental Army survives but is considered the low point of the war.