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1B. Looking at Water & Its Contaminants. Learning more about the chemistry of water and how substances interact with water. Do Now: (day 1). Read Article on pg. 25 and write a paragraph summary addressing: water tests that were performed Concerns Other important information.

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1b looking at water its contaminants

1B. Looking at Water & Its Contaminants

Learning more about the chemistry of water and how substances interact with water


Do now day 1
Do Now: (day 1)

  • Read Article on pg. 25 and write a paragraph summary addressing:

    • water tests that were performed

    • Concerns

    • Other important information


Do now cont
Do Now (cont.)

Concerns

Dissolved oxygen (DO) levels – will test

Microorganisms – none present

Dissolved matter – must consider amounts & effect of temperature on solubility – will test

Suspended particles – will test

Other Information

No illness – water conservation tips – more water trucked in – 3 day crisis expected


Now what
Now what?

Water experts agree that the fish kill was caused by something either dissolved or suspended in the Snake River.

How can you determine the exact cause?

Knowing properties of water & properties of substances that may be found in it will help.

Knowing language of chemistry will help you communicate your findings.

4


Objectives
Objectives

  • SWBAT compare and contrast surface tension between water and alcohol

  • SWBAT define matter and discuss the physical properties of water.

  • SWBAT calculate density



Mini group activity wkst u1b2
Mini- group activity- WKST U1B2

PREDICTION:

How many drops of water can a penny hold without spilling over?



Water is very common on earth
Water is very common… on Earth

70% of Earth’s surface covered by oceans – average depth of 3 km (2 mi)

Unmatched by any planet or moon in our solar system

9


Matter
Matter

  • MATTER: IS ANYTHING THAT HAS MASS & OCCUPIES SPACE.

  • WATER IS MATTER.


Let s think about
Let’s think about…

What states of matter can be observed in this winter scene?


Water has physical properties
Water has Physical Properties

Matter can be distinguished by its properties.

Physical properties are those can be observed and measured without changing the chemical makeup of the substance

Ex.- color, odor, density, melting point, boiling point, freezing point.

12


Water has physical properties1
Water has Physical Properties

  • Density – Water’s density is 1.00 g/cm3 or 1.00 g/mL at 25oC – varies by temperature

    • Ex. Mini-lab

  • Freezing Point – 0oC at normal atmospheric conditions

  • Any others?

13


Do now day 2
Do Now (day 2)

  • What physical property of water explains the “sheeting action” under the swimmers right arm?


Objectives1
Objectives

  • SWBAT identify physical properties of substances

  • SWBAT differentiate between mixtures and substances and heterogeneous and homogenous mixtures

  • SWBAT create a concept chart of all types of solutions


Unit 1b 2 p2
Unit 1B.2 p2

  • Think-Pair-Share WKST


Pure water
“Pure” Water

  • “Pure” water is water with absolutely nothing else dissolved or suspended in it

  • Properties of pure water

    • Clear

    • Colorless

    • Odorless

    • Tasteless

17


Substances dissolve in water
Substances Dissolve in Water

  • Aqueous solutions – water based solutions

    • SOLUTE- substance that is being dissolved

    • SOLVENT- substance that dissolves the solute (usually water, in aqueous solutions it is water)

18




Matter is divided into a mixture or a substance
Matter is divided into a mixture or a substance

  • Mixture:

    • two or more substances coming together but keeping their individual properties

  • “Foul Water” was a mixture of water, used coffee grinds, oil, garlic powder, salt

  • Substance:

    • Definite composition, not physically able to separate


Types of mixtures
Types of Mixtures

  • Homogeneous Mixture:

    • Composition is the same or uniform throughout

  • Heterogeneous Mixture:

    • Composition is not the same or uniform throughout.


2 types of heterogeneous mixtures
2 Types of Heterogeneous Mixtures

Suspension – heterogeneous mixture containing large, solid particles that can settle out or be separated by filtration

Colloid – heterogeneous mixture containing particles too small to settle out – cloudy – Tyndall effect

24


Solutions
Solutions

All solutions are homogeneous mixtures

  • A solute dissolves in a solvent to make a solution

  • Solutions are clear but not necessarily colorless

  • A conductivity test indicates the presence of dissolved charged particles

25


Types of substances
Types of Substances

  • Elements:

    • One type of atom

  • Compounds:

    • Two or more types of atoms chemically bonded together


Do now
Do Now

  • What are the two major types of mixtures?

  • What is the difference between a suspension and a colloidal dispersion?


Objectives2
Objectives

  • SWBAT review the differences between types of mixtures.

  • SWBAT create a concept chart of substances and mixtures and provide examples of each.

  • SWBAT differentiate between symbol, element, compound, and molecule.




Particulate level
Particulate Level category.

To understand the macroscopic (large scale & readily observed) properties of water, you have to understand water’s behavior at the particulate level – the level of small particles – the level of atoms and molecules

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Substances
Substances category.

Atoms – “building blocks of matter”

Elements – made of one kind of atom

Represented by symbols (H, O, Ne) & sometimes formulas (H2, O2)

Molecules – made of atoms joined together – atoms can be the same or different

Compounds – made of different elements combined together

Represented by formulas (H2O, KCl)

32



Models representations of atoms molecules
MODELS: category.REPRESENTATIONS OF ATOMS & MOLECULES

These pictures are one kind of model (space filling model).

34


Models of water
Models of Water category.

“Seeing and Imagining Water”

Visit the online site for 1B

http://www.whfreeman.com/chemcomstudent/index2.html

35


1b 5 pictures in the mind
1B.5 PICTURES IN THE MIND category.

Modeling Matter

36


Drawing models
Drawing Models category.

  • Sample Problem: Draw a model of two gaseous compounds in a homogeneous mixture.

  • What do you need to know to draw your model?

    • What is a homogeneous mixture?

    • What might a gaseous compound look like?

    • How many compounds are in this mixture?

  • There is more than one drawing possible.

37


Do now1
Do Now category.

  • Describe the picture:

  • 1. What type of mixture is this?

  • 2. How many compounds?

  • 3. What state of matter?


Objectives3
Objectives category.

  • SWBAT classify pictures as homogeneous, heterogeneous, gas, solid, or liquid.

  • SWBAT identity the number of different compounds in a substance or mixture

  • SWBAT draw different mixtures and answer questions related to those pictures


Drawing models1
Drawing Models category.

Which of the following drawings best represents a homogeneous mixtures of two gaseous compounds?

40


Drawing models2
Drawing Models category.

  • Not homogeneous

  • 2 types of molecules are uniformly mixed

  • Atoms are colored to represent different elements

  • 3 different compounds, not 2

The best answer is “b.”

“b” & “c” are space-filling models. “a” is a ball-and-stick model. Both are acceptable.

41


Drawing models3
Drawing Models category.

Finish the 7 questions for the B.5 Pictures in the Mind modeling matter activity on pp. 33-34.

42


Homework
Homework category.

  • Pg. 50 #1-4, 6-8, 10


Do now2
Do Now category.

  • Name 4 elements

  • Where can you find each one?


Objectives4
Objectives category.

  • SWBAT understand the requirements for the mole day project

  • SWBAT determine numbers of atoms in a formula

  • SWBAT identify elements on the periodic table and understand how to write their symbols

  • SWBAT research and create a poster about a particular element



Symbols formulas equations
Symbols, Formulas, & Equations category.

  • The international language of chemistry includes symbols, formulas, & equations.

    • Symbols are like letters.

    • Formulas are like words.

    • Equations are like sentences.

47


The letters symbols elements
The “letters” category.Symbols – Elements

  • Elements are organized on the Periodic Table of Elements

  • Each element is represented by a symbol

    • Capital letter

    • Capital letter & lower case letter

  • Find some of these symbols on the Periodic Table.

48


1b looking at water its contaminants

The Periodic Table of Elements contains much more useful information than just symbols.You will be learning more about this table throughout this course.

People use aluminum to make a variety of products, including foil, cans, & lightweight construction materials.

49


1b looking at water its contaminants

Silicon has properties that lie between those of metals and nonmetals. It is classified as a metalloid. One of its primary uses is in electronic devices.

50



The words formulas
The “words” rubber of automobile tires.Formulas

Formulas represent specific chemical substances.

Formulas are made of symbols.

Formulas may include subscripts.

A subscript refers back to the symbol immediately before it. A “1” is “understood” & not written.

52


Examples
Examples rubber of automobile tires.

  • CO

    • 1 carbon & 1 oxygen

  • CO2

    • 1 carbon & 2 oxygens

  • NH3

    • 1 nitrogen & 3 hydrogens

  • H2O

    • 2 hydrogens & 1 oxygen

  • H2SO4

    • 2 hydrogens, 1 sulfur, & 4 oxygens


Diatomic elements
Diatomic Elements rubber of automobile tires.

Most elements exist as individual atoms and are represented with symbols.

Some elements exist as 2 bonded atoms of the same element.

For example, hydrogen is a diatomic gas, so is always written as H2 when it is an uncombined element.

54


1b looking at water its contaminants
7 “GEN-U-INE DIATOMICS” rubber of automobile tires.The names of all diatomic elements end in GEN or INE, and U should remember them!

The 7 diatomic elements are all gases, but not all gases are diatomic.

Where are the 7 diatomic elements found on the Periodic Table?

55


The sentences equations
The “sentences” rubber of automobile tires.Equations

Equations give the details of chemical reactions

Chemical reactions involve the breaking & making of chemical bonds, causing atoms to be rearranged into new substances.

The new substances have different properties from those of the original materials.

56


The sentences equations1
The “sentences” rubber of automobile tires.Equations

  • The original substances (reactants) are written first. Then, an arrow points to the new substances that are made (products).

    reactants  products

    hydrogen + oxygen  water

    2H2 + O2  2H2O

  • Note that this equation is “balanced.”

    • The total number for each kind of atom is the same for both reactants & products.

57


Do now3
Do Now rubber of automobile tires.

  • During yesterday’s class, we used a metaphor in chemistry. Tell me what the following stood for and provide an example of each.

  • Letters= Ex.

  • Words= Ex.

  • Sentences= Ex.


Objectives5
Objectives rubber of automobile tires.

  • SWBAT define protons, neutrons, and electrons and determine the number of them in a given element.

  • SWBAT draw out Lewis Diagrams of different atoms



Parts of the atom

+ rubber of automobile tires.

-

Parts of the Atom

  • Proton-

    • In nucleus, positive charge and a mass of 1

  • Neutron-

    • In nucleus, neutral charge and a mass of 1

  • Electron-

    • Outside nucleus, negative charge and no mass


Complete the chart
Complete the chart rubber of automobile tires.


So if this is an atom
So… if this is an atom… rubber of automobile tires.

  • What makes atoms different?

  • How is carbon different from oxygen?

    • Different numbers of protons


Oxygen

8 rubber of automobile tires.

O

15.99

Oxygen

Element

Symbol

Atomic

Number

(Oxygen)

(number of protons)

Atomic Mass

(number of protons and neutrons)


Practice problems

4 rubber of automobile tires.

7

C

N

Ne

9.01

12.02

20

Practice Problems

Complete the missing information and include the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons.Worksheet


Do now4
Do Now rubber of automobile tires.

  • Draw out the atom, F (atomic #_____)


Objectives6
Objectives rubber of automobile tires.

  • SWBAT draw out Lewis Diagrams of different atoms

  • SWBAT identify ions as cations and anions and be able to determine the formula for ions and be able to name them.

  • SWBAT work in groups to answer questions as a conclusion to activity


1b 7 symbols formulas equations
1B.7 SYMBOLS, FORMULAS, & EQUATIONS rubber of automobile tires.

Developing Skills, p. 36 #1-3

69


Lewis dot structure
Lewis Dot Structure rubber of automobile tires.

  • Drawing representing the outer most (valence) electrons

  • EX.

  • Worksheet


1b 8 the electrical nature of matter
1B.8 THE ELECTRICAL NATURE OF MATTER rubber of automobile tires.

72


1b looking at water its contaminants

Rubbing a balloon against your hair results in static electricity.Clothes taken out of the drier often show static cling.The shock that you sometimes receive after you walk across a rug & touch a doorknob is another example of matter’s electrical nature.What causes these phenomena?

Static cling is best seen when the humidity is low.

73


Attraction repulsion
Attraction & Repulsion electricity.

The electrical properties of matter can be summarized as follows:

What are these positive and negative particles?

74


Subatomic particles
Subatomic Particles electricity.

Every neutral (uncharged) atoms contains an equal number of positively charged protons (+) and negatively charged (-) electrons.

# of (+) protons = # of (-) electrons

Positive-Negative attractions between the protons in one atoms the electrons in another atom hold atoms together in bonds.

Most atoms also contain neutral particles having no charge (0) called neutrons.

75


Do now5
Do Now electricity.

Draw the Lewis Dot Diagrams for the following Atoms:

  • Ca

  • Li

  • F


Objectives7
Objectives electricity.

  • SWBAT identify cations and anions

  • SWBAT calculate the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in different ions

  • SWBAT name and determine the formula for several ions



Ions and ionic compounds
Ions and Ionic Compounds electricity.

Recall: Molecules make up one kind of compound.

Ions make up another kind of compound.

Ions are electrically charged atoms (or groups of atoms).

Ions are formed when neutral atoms gain or lose electrons.

79


1b looking at water its contaminants
Ions electricity.

Ions are electrically charged atoms (or groups of atoms).

Ions are formed when neutral atoms gain or lose electrons.

80


1b looking at water its contaminants
Ions electricity.

  • Recall: What charge do electrons carry?

    • Negative

  • When atoms gain negative electrons, they form negative ions.

  • When atoms lose negative electrons, they form positive ions.

81


1b looking at water its contaminants
Ions electricity.

For example, sodium (Na) is # 11 on the Periodic Table.

It has 11 (+) protons and 11 (-) electrons.

If it lost 1 (-) electron, it would have 11 (+) protons and 10 (-) electrons.

It has one more proton than electrons, so it has a charge of -1.

The symbol for a sodium ion is Na1+ or just Na+. (The 1 is understood.)

82


1b looking at water its contaminants
Ions electricity.

For another example, chlorine (Cl) is # 17 on the Periodic Table.

It has 17 (+) protons and 17 (-) electrons.

If it gained 1 (-) electron, it would have 17 (+) protons and 18 (-) electrons.

It has one less proton than electrons, so it has a charge of +1.

The symbol for a chloride ion is Cl1- or just Cl-. (The 1 is understood.)

83


Do now6
Do Now electricity.

  • List the number of protons, electrons, and neutrons in each ion

    • O2-

    • H+

    • F3-

  • Do any of these atoms have complete valence shells?


Objectives8
Objectives electricity.

  • SWBAT determine the formulas for ionic compounds

  • SWBAT name different ionic compounds


Ionic compounds
Ionic Compounds electricity.

Oppositely charged ions connect together to form ionic compounds.

For example, sodium ions (Na+) connect to chloride ions (Cl-) to make sodium chloride (NaCl), or table salt.

86


1b looking at water its contaminants
Sodium chloride consists of an equal number of positive and negative ions arranged in a 3-dimensional network called a crystal.

A scanning electron micrograph shows the cubic structure of NaCl crystals.

87


1b looking at water its contaminants

A space-filling model of NaCl provides information about how the individual sodium ions & chloride ions are arranged within the salt crystal.

What else does this model suggest about the sodium and chloride ions or sodium chloride?

88


1b looking at water its contaminants

If an ionic compound dissolves in water, the individual ions would separate from each other and spread out throughout the water.To show that they were now in an aqueous solution, an (aq) would be added after the symbols for the ions.Na+(aq) Cl- (aq)

89


More about ions
More about Ions would separate from each other and spread out throughout the water.

Cation – positive ion

Anion – negative ion

Monoatomic ions (or monatomic)

Polyatomic ions

Na+, Cl-, Mg2+, O2-, Al3+, N3-

NH4+, CO32-, SO42-, PO43-

90


Common ions
Common Ions would separate from each other and spread out throughout the water.

See text p. 40 for a list of common ions.

91


Formulas for ionic compounds
Formulas for Ionic Compounds would separate from each other and spread out throughout the water.

2 Rules for Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds

1. Cation first, then anion

2. Correct formula will be neutral, with the fewest number of each ion needed to make the total electrical charge zero

No charges are shown in the formula.

92


Practice problems1
Practice Problems would separate from each other and spread out throughout the water.

  • NaCl

    • One Na1+ and one Cl1- cancel each other out.

      • +1 + -1 = 0

  • CaCl2

    • One Ca2+ needs two of the Cl1- to cancel it out.

      • +2 + -1 + -1 = 0

Note: Negative monoatomic ions change their ending to “ide.”

Examples above are sodium chloride and calcium chloride.


Formulas containing polyatomic ions
Formulas Containing would separate from each other and spread out throughout the water.Polyatomic Ions

Formulas for compounds containing polyatomic ions follow the same rules

If a subscript is needed, it follows the entire polyatomic ion, which is enclosed in parentheses

For example, the calcium ion has a +2 charge, and the nitrate ion has a -1 charge

94


Formulas containing polyatomic ions1
Formulas Containing would separate from each other and spread out throughout the water.Polyatomic Ions

  • For example, the calcium ion has a +2 charge (Ca2+), and the nitrate ion has a -1 charge (NO31+).

  • Two nitrate ions are needed to balance out the charge on one calcium ion.

  • The formula for calcium nitrate is: Ca(NO3)2.

    No charges are shown in the formula.

  • Polyatomic ions do not change their endings.

95


Naming ionic compounds
Naming Ionic Compounds would separate from each other and spread out throughout the water.

  • 1. Name the cation, then the anion

  • 2. Have the last few letters changed to –ide (monoatomic ions only)

  • Ex. KF, potassium fluoride

  • Ex. Ca(NO3)2, calcium nitrate


Do now7
Do Now would separate from each other and spread out throughout the water.

  • Write the formula and name the following ionic compounds

  • 1. Ca2+ Br-

  • 2. PO43- Ag+

  • 3. CO32- NH4+

  • 4. Al3+ NO3-

  • What does the word “ionic” mean?


Objectives9
Objectives would separate from each other and spread out throughout the water.

  • SWBAT determine the formulas for several polyatomic and monoatomic compounds

  • SWBAT explain what a mole is and present their projects

  • SWBAT read fun facts about the mole


1b 10 ionic compounds
1B.10 IONIC COMPOUNDS would separate from each other and spread out throughout the water.

Developing Skills, p. 41

99


Ib 11 water testing
IB.11 WATER TESTING would separate from each other and spread out throughout the water.

Investigating Matter, pp. 42-45

100


Do now8
Do Now would separate from each other and spread out throughout the water.

  • Explain what charge the following items typically carry and WHY!

  • Lithium

  • Chlorine

  • Calcium


Figuring out charges
Figuring out Charges would separate from each other and spread out throughout the water.


Do now9
Do Now would separate from each other and spread out throughout the water.

  • 1. Draw the Lewis Dot diagram for Li+.

  • 2. Draw a picture of a heterogeneous mixture of elements X and B.


Objectives10
Objectives would separate from each other and spread out throughout the water.

  • 1. SWBAT start to review for the test by going over the answers review questions.

  • 2. SWBAT read and think critically about the Riverwood Fish Kill.

  • 3. SWBAT create 2 possible hypothesis about the Riverwood fish kill.


Take out questions
Take out questions: would separate from each other and spread out throughout the water.

  • Pg. 51 #15-24


1b 12 pure and impure water
1B.12 PURE AND IMPURE WATER would separate from each other and spread out throughout the water.

106


Pure vs clean water
Pure vs. Clean Water would separate from each other and spread out throughout the water.

In the U.S., we all have access to abundant, low cost, clean, but not pure water

Even if the cost was not prohibitive, it would be impossible to have 100% pure water.

Atmospheric gases (e.g., O2, N2, CO2) will always dissolve in the water to some extent.

107


Ib 13 the riverwood water mystery
IB.13 THE RIVERWOOD WATER MYSTERY would separate from each other and spread out throughout the water.

Making Decisions, p. 46

108


1b 14 what are the possibilities
1B.14 WHAT ARE THE POSSIBILITIES? would separate from each other and spread out throughout the water.

109


How do you narrow down the data to get the answer
HOW DO YOU NARROW DOWN THE DATA TO GET THE ANSWER? would separate from each other and spread out throughout the water.

The cause of the fish kill may be related to something suspended in or dissolved in the water. What might it be?

110


Chemistry at work
Chemistry at Work would separate from each other and spread out throughout the water.

To learn about careers that require knowledge about what you are learning about in class right now, read text pp. 48-49, Environmental Cleanup: It’s a Dirty Job… But That’s the Point

111