What is a Disability? Our textbook defines Section 504 as: • As a person with a disability as anyone who has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities
What is Autism? • Autism is a complex developmental disability that typically appears during the first three years of life and is the result of a neurological disorder that affects the normal functioning of the brain, impacting development in the areas of social interaction and communication skills. Both children and adults with autism typically show difficulties in verbal and non-verbal communication, social interactions, and leisure or play activities. • Autism is one of five disorders that falls under the umbrella of Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD), a category of neurological disorders characterized by “severe and pervasive impairment in several areas of development.”
Main points to remember • It appears around the first 3 years of life • Language and social development are significantly delayed • Everyday situations become very difficult without some guidance or teaching. • It’s a Developmental Disability • It is a lifelong disability
Characteristics of Autism • The characteristic behaviors of autism spectrum disorders may or may not be apparent in infancy (18 to 24 months), but usually become obvious during early childhood (24 months to 6 years). • Does not gesture (point, wave, grasp) by 12 months • Does not say single words by 16 months • Does not say two-word phrases on his or her own by 24 months • Has any loss of any language or social skill at any age • Having any of these five "red flags" does not mean your child has autism. But because the characteristics of the disorder vary so much, a child showing these behaviors should have further evaluations by a multidisciplinary team. This team may include a neurologist, psychologist, developmental pediatrician, speech/language therapist, learning consultant, or other professionals knowledgeable about autism.
Facts and Statistics • 1 in 150 births • 1 to 1.5 million Americans • Fastest-growing developmental disability • 10 - 17 % annual growth • $90 billion annual cost • 90% of costs are in adult services • Cost of lifelong care can be reduced by 2/3 with early diagnosis and intervention • In 10 years, the annual cost will be $200-400 billion
Type of Assessments used • The Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test (Rev. ed.) (Gardner, 1990) measures the child's ability to verbally label objects and people. The child must identify, by word, a single object or a group of objects on the basis of a single concept. This is a standardized test that provides age equivalents, standard scores, scaled scores, and percentile ranks. • The Receptive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test (Rev. ed.) (Gardner, 1990) obtains an estimate of a child's one-word hearing vocabulary based on what the child has learned from home and school. It provides information about the child's ability to understand language. This is a standardized test that provides age equivalents, standard scores, scaled scores, percentile ranks.
Types of Assessments Cont • The Differential Ability Scales (DAS) (Elliott, 1990) measures overall cognitive ability and specific abilities in children and adolescents. It is better suited for intellectually higher-functioning children with autism. The DAS assesses multidimensional abilities in children ages two years and six months to seventeen years and eleven months. It is administered individually and takes 45 to 65 minutes for the full cognitive battery. The achievement test takes 15 to 25 minutes to administer. • The Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (ACBC) is for children four to eighteen years old. It has two major scales – externalizing and internalizing behaviors – each of which has four subscales. It has been used as a follow-up measure. 2 versions of this test.
Characteristics • Cognitive: • Impairment in social interactions • Impairment in verbal and non-verbal communication, and in imaginative activity • Vary with change in age and IQ • Repeats words of phrases (scripting) • Unresponsive to normal teaching methods
Psychomotor Domain • Either love to participate or choose not to participate • Fine and Gross motor skills are limited • Like to spin or spins objects • Plays by a set of their own rules
Affective Domain • Has difficulty expressing needs • Mood changes not seen by others (laughing or crying) • Hard time developing regular peer relationships
Short Video • The face of Autism • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G7kHSOgauhg
Teaching Strategies • Some physical prompting (hand over hand) • Directions should be clear and to the point • Talk slow so the students can understand you • Guide the students through what they have to do • Take advantage of interests • Use incentives or rewards
Teaching Strategies • Use techniques that work at home • Structure the activities • Social Stories with any assembly • Routines, structure and consistency • Use forward and backward chaining • Use Visuals
Behavior Management • Establish a set of routines • Can use a token economy • Contingencies – work then play • Clear boundaries or exact places to sit • Each student should have a behavior plan or an IEP • Reinforcers
You can still accomplish dreams • Jason McElwain-student with Autism • http://www.break.com/index/autisticbball.html
Reference Page • Cohen, Marlene J. (2007). Visual Supports for People with Autism. Bethesda, Maryland, Woodbine House. • Anderson, Stephen R. (2007). Self-Help Skills for People with Autism. Bethesda, Maryland. Woodbine House. • Autism Society of America. What is Autism: Characteristics of Autism. Retrieved March 13, 2009 from http://www.autism-society.org/site/PageServer?pagename=about_whatis_characteristics • Winnick, Joseph P. (2005). Adapted Physical Education and Sport Fourth Edition. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics. • Retrieved March 13, 2009 from http://www.behavior-consultant.com/aut-dx-devices.htm • Retrieved March 13, 2009 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G7kHSOgauhg • Retrieved March 13, 2009 fromhttp://www.break.com/index/autisticbball.html