The Theme of the lecture. Indian Medicine. Sushruta -An Ancient Indian Surgeon. His book- Sushruta Samhita . Charaka -one of the Indian Physician. Charaka is The Author Of The Book Charaka Samhita . Indian Medicine. Sushruta -An Ancient Indian Surgeon. His book- Sushruta Samhita .
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Sushruta-An Ancient Indian Surgeon.
Charaka-one of the Indian Physician.
Charakais The Author Of The Book CharakaSamhita.
Sushruta-An Ancient Indian Surgeon.
Charara is The Author Of The Book CharakaSamhita.
Today I will tell You about Indian medicine, so our topic for today is about different herb, used by people to treat some kinds of diseases.
Sushruta - also spelt Susruta or Sushrutha - was an ancient Indian surgeon (datable to between the 6th century BC and about the 4th century CE) and heis the author of the book SushrutaSamhita, in which he describes over 120 surgical instruments, 300 surgical procedures and classifies human surgery in 8 categories. He lived and taught and practiced his art on the banks of the Ganges in the area that corresponds to the present day city of Benares in North-West India.
In the Sushruta school, the first person to expound Ayurveda knowledge was Dhanvantari who then taught it to Divodasa who, in turn, taught it to Sushruta.
Ayurveda is an ancient medical science. The word, ayurveda is composed of two words of Sanskrit, ayur (meaning life) and veda (meaning knowledge). Thus Ayurveda is a medical science of Ancient India. It deals with matters relating to health, day-to-day life and longevity (long life). Ayurveda is a traditional system of medicine and medication, based on experience and observation. This system of medicine and medication is more than 3000 years old. According to mythological story, Dhanvantari was the first physician to use ayurveda. In modern India also, Ayurveda is being used. It has also reached outside Indiain countries like UAE, Saudi arabia and several persons from other countries also take advantage of ayurveda.
Because of his seminal and numerous contributions to the science and art of surgery he is also known by the title "Father of Surgery." Much of what is known about this inventive surgeon is contained in a series of volumes he authored, which are collectively known as the SusruthaSamhita. The "Samhita" has writings that date as late as 600 AD, and some scholars believe that there were contributions and additions to his teachings from generations of his students and disciples.
Susrutha is also the father of Plastic Surgery and Cosmetic Surgery since his technique of forehead flap rhinoplasty (repairing the disfigured nose with a flap of skin from the forehead),that he used to reconstruct noses that were amputated as a punishment for crimes, is practiced almost unchanged in technique to this day. The SusruthaSamhita contains the first known description of several operations, including the uniting of bowel, the removal of the prostate gland, the removal of cataract lenses and the draining of abscesses.
Susrutha was also the first surgeon to advocate the practice of operations on inanimate objects such as watermelons, clay plots and reeds; thus predating the modern practice of the surgical workshop by hundreds of years.
The SushrutaSamhita contains 184 chapters and description of 1120 illnesses, 700 medicinal plants, a detailed study on Anatomy, 64 preparations from mineral sources and 57 preparations based on animal sources.
Detailed practical guidance for water purification is given in the famous treatise of Indian physician, Sushruta. Sushruta disclosed that muddy water could be purified with herbs and naturally occurring substances; Nirmali seeds, roots of Kamal (lotus/water lily), rhizomes of algae and three stones, Gomed (garnet) Moti (pearl) Sphatik (quartz crystal) were used. He recommended the disinfection of contaminated water by exposing it to the sun or immersing red hot iron or hot sand in it.
The Sushrutasamhita is in two parts, the Purva-tantra in five sections and the Uttara-tantra. Those two parts together encompass, apart from Salya and Salakya, the other specialities like medicine, pediatrics, geriatrics, diseases of the ear, nose, throat and eye, toxicology, aphrodisiacs and psychiatry.
Sushruta has pointed out that haemorrhage can be arrested by apposition of the cut edges with stitches, application of styptic decoctions, by cauterisation with chemicals or heat. That the progress of surgery and its development is closely associated with the great wars of the past is well known.
Sushruta has advocated the use of wine with incense of cannabis for anaesthesia.
Sushruta has advocated the use of wine with incense of cannabis for anaesthesia.
Sushruta describes eight types of surgical procedures: Excision (chedana) is a procedure whereby a part or whole of the limb is cut off from the parent. Incision (bhedana) is made to achieve effective drainage or exposure of underlying structures to let the content out.
Scraping (lekhana) or scooping is carried out to remove a growth or flesh of an ulcer, tartar of teeth, etc. the veins, hydrocele and ascitic fluid in the abdomen are drained by puncturing with special instrument (vyadhana). The sinuses and cavities with foreign bodies are probed (esana) for establishing their size, site, number, shape, position, situation, etc.
To obtain proficiency and acquiring skill and speed in these different types of surgical manipulations, Sushruta had devised various experimental modules for trying each procedure. For example, incision and excision are to be practiced on vegetables and leather bags filled with mud of different densities; scraping on hairy skin of animals; puncturing on the vein of dead animals and lotus stalks; probing on moth-eaten wood or bamboo; scarification on wooden planks smeared with beeswax, etc.
Sushruta also gives classification of the bones and their reaction to injuries. varieties of dislocation of joints (sandhimukta) and fractures of the shaft (kanda-bhagna) are given systematically.
He classifies and gives the details of the six types of dislocations and twelve varieties of fractures. He gives the principles of fracture treatment, viz., traction, manipulation, appositions and stabilisation. Sushruta has described the entire orthopaedic surgery, including some measures of rehabilitation, in his work.
Sushruta was well aware of the urinary stones, their varieties; the anatomy of urinary bladder along with its relations is well recorded in the chapter on urinary stones. Varieties of stones, their signs and symptoms, the method of extraction and operative complication are given in detail.
Sushruta lays down the basic principles of plastic surgery by advocating a proper physiotherapy before the operation and describes various methods or different types of defects, viz., release of the skin for covering small defects, rotation of the flaps to make up for the partial loss and pedicle flaps for covering complete loss of skin from an area.
Charak, sometimes spelled Caraka, born c. 300 BC was one of the principal contributors to the ancient art and science of Ayurveda, a system of medicine and lifestyle developed in Ancient India. He is sometimes referred to as the Father of Indian Medicine.Contents
The term Caraka is a label said to apply to ‘wandering scholars’ or ‘wandering physicians.’ see CharakaSamhita.
According to Charaka's translations health and disease are not predetermined and life may be prolonged by human effort and attention to lifestyle. As per Indian heritage and science of Ayurvedic system, prevention of all types of diseases have a more prominent place than treatment, including restructuring of life style to align with the course of nature and four seasons, which will guarantee complete wellness.
A physician who fails to enter the body of a patient with the lamp of knowledge and understanding can never treat diseases. He should first study all the factors, including environment, which influence a patient's disease, and then prescribe treatment. It is more important to prevent the occurrence of disease than to seek a cure.
These remarks appear obvious today, though they were often not heeded, and were made by Charaka, in his famous Ayurvedic treatise CharakaSamhita. The treatise contains many such remarks which are held in reverence even today. Some of them are in the fields of physiology, etiology and embryology.
Charaka was the first physician to present the concept of digestion, metabolism and immunity. According to his translations of the Vedas, a body functions because it contains three dosha or principles, namely movement (vata), transformation (pitta) and lubrication and stability (kapha). The doshas are also sometimes called humours, namely, bile, phlegm and wind. These dosha are produced when dhatus (blood, flesh and marrow) act upon the food eaten. For the same quantity of food eaten, one body, however, produces dosha in an amount different from another body. That is why one body is different from another. For instance, it is more weighty, stronger, more energetic.
Further, illness is caused when the balance among the three dosha in a human body is disturbed. To restore the balance he prescribed medicinal drugs. Although he was aware of germs in the body, he did not give them any importance.
Charaka knew the fundamentals of genetics. For instance, he knew the factors determining the sex of a child. A genetic defect in a child, like lameness or blindness, he said, was not due to any defect in the mother or the father, but in the ovum or sperm of the parents (an accepted fact today).
Charaka studied the anatomy of the human body and various organs. He gave 360 as the total number of bones, including teeth, present in the body. He wrongly believed that the heart had one cavity, but he was right when he considered it to be a controlling centre. He claimed that the heart was connected to the entire body through 13 main channels. Apart from these channels, there were countless other ones of varying sizes which supplied not only nutrients to various tissues but also provided passage to waste products. He also claimed that any obstruction in the main channels led to a disease or deformity in the body.
Under the guidance of the ancient physician Atreya, Agnivesa had written an encyclopedic treatise in the eighth century B.C. However, it was only when Charaka revised this treatise that it gained popularity and came to be known as Charakasamhita. For two millennia it remained a standard work on the subject and was translated into many foreign languages, including Arabic and Latin.
According to the Charaka tradition, there existed six schools of medicine, founded by the disciples of the sage PunarvasuĀtreya. Each of his disciples, Agnivesha, Bhela, Jatūkarna, Parāshara, Hārīta, and Kshārapāni, composed a Samhitā. Of these, the one composed by Agnivesha was considered the best. The AgniveshaSamhitā was later revised by Charaka and it came to be known as CharakaSamhitā. The CharakaSamhitā was revised by Dridhbala.
Āyurveda is traditionally divided into eight branches which,they are
1.kayachikitsa or ayurvedic internal medicine 2.balachikitsa or paediatrics 3.bhootavidya or treatment of demoniacal diseases 4.urdhwanga chikitsa or ENT with ophthalmology 5.salyatantra or ayurvedic surgery 6.agadatantra or toxicology 7.rasayanatantra or science of rejuvanation 8.vajeekarana tantra or aphrodisiac therapy .