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Music Appreciation Class #2. The Baroque, part 1 CD #1, tracks 5-8. Definition. 1600-1750 Extravagant, complex, or bizarre, especially in ornamentation. Definition, continued. “Spacious, dynamic, brilliant, colorful, theatrical, passionate, sensual, ecstatic, opulent, extravagant,

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music appreciation class 2

Music AppreciationClass #2

The Baroque, part 1

CD #1, tracks 5-8

definition
Definition
  • 1600-1750
  • Extravagant, complex, or bizarre, especially in ornamentation
definition continued
Definition, continued

“Spacious, dynamic,

brilliant, colorful, theatrical, passionate, sensual, ecstatic,

opulent, extravagant,

versatile and virtuoso.”

culture

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

1100

1200

1300

1400

1500

1600

1700

1800

1900

Culture
  • Turbulent change in politics, science, arts
  • Religious wars
  • Exploration of the New World
  • Rise of middle-class culture
  • Music making centered in the home, church, and universities
    • Collegium musicum
what is the baroque aesthetic
What is the “Baroque*” aesthetic?
  • Intense;
  • Complex;
  • Dense;
  • Opulent;
  • Extravagant.
main musical ideas from baroque
Main musical ideas from Baroque:
  • Contrapuntal*
  • Grandeur
  • Complexity
  • Virtuosity*
improvisation
Improvisation*
  • Improvisation*
    • First musical “stars”
      • Intense competition.
      • William Goldstein master class
baroque musical rhythm
Baroque Musical Rhythm
  • Baroque rhythm*
    • Specific
    • Unrelenting
    • Dance
      • Formal Royal Court occasions
the rise of the virtuoso musician
The Rise of the Virtuoso* Musician
  • Technical improvements in instrument making
  • Composers challenging the performers
the doctrine of the affections
The Doctrine of the Affections*
  • One mood, or affection, per movement or piece
women in baroque music
Women in Baroque Music

More professional women were

singers & instrumentalists

  • Francesca Caccini
  • Barbara Strozzi
  • Faustina Bordoni
  • Francesca Cuzzoni
  • Elisabeth-Claude Jacquet de la Guerre
concerto ritornello
Concerto* & Ritornello*
  • Definition
    • Concerto*: to fight, to argue; a contest
    • Ritornello*: to return over and again
the baroque dance suite
The Baroque Dance Suite*

Suite: each movement is A-A-B-B

  • Allemande
  • Courante
  • Sarabande
  • Gigue (jig)
other optional dances
Other optional dances
  • Minuet
  • Gavotte
  • Bourrée
  • Passepied
contrapuntal devices
Contrapuntal devices
  • Augmentation: longer time values
  • Diminution: shorter time values
  • Retrograde: backwards (starting from the last and going to the first)
  • Inversion: turning the melodic intervals upside down
  • Retrograde inversion: original melody is played upside down and backwards
cd 1 track 5

CD #1, track 5

Johann Pachelbel: “Canon & Gigue”

johann pachelbel
Johann Pachelbel*
  • 1653-1706
    • Composer
    • Teacher
    • Organist
definitions
Definitions
  • Canon*
    • Contrapuntal*
    • “Leader” melody*
    • “Follower” imitation*
  • Gigue*
    • Movement of a dance suite*
listen for
Listen for…
  • Repeating bass line*
  • “Leader” voice*
  • “Follower” voice*
  • Entrances of new voices
  • Harpsichord* accompaniment
cd 1 track 6

CD #1, track 6

Arcangelo Corelli: “Christmas Concerto”

Vivace -- Grave

arcangelo corelli
Arcangelo Corelli
  • 1653-1713
    • Crucial influence on violin music & technique
    • Accepted in aristocratic society
    • Extreme wealth
definitions27
Definitions
  • Vivace*
    • Lively, energetic
  • Grave*
    • Slow, mournful
  • Concerto da chiesa*
    • 3-part composition for the church
listen for28
Listen for…
  • Significant tempo* changes
  • Dynamic* changes
    • Crescendo*
    • Decrescendo*
  • Contrapuntal* writing
  • Harpsichord* accompaniment
cd 1 track 7

CD #1, Track 7

François Couperin: Premier Concert, “Prélude”

fran ois couperin
François Couperin
  • 1668-1733
    • Couperin le Grand
      • Famous musical family
    • Organiste du Roi
    • Ordinaire de la musique

de la chambre du Roi

definitions31
Definitions
  • Prélude*
    • An introductory piece, able to be performed out of context.
  • French Baroque*
    • Identified by unusually specific rhythm* and a decorated melodic line.
listen for32
Listen for…
  • Trill*
  • Mordent*
  • Contrapuntal* and melodic writing
  • Consistent rhythm*
cd 1 track 8

CD #1, Track 8

Antonio Vivaldi: “The Four Seasons”

Spring Allegro

antonio vivaldi
Antonio Vivaldi*
  • 1678 (Venice) – 1741 (Vienna)
  • Father/Son violinists
  • Innovative composer
    • Form (Sonata* or

“Sonata Allegro”*)

    • Woodwind*
    • Virtuoso* violin technique
virtuoso
Virtuoso!*

"Vivaldi played a solo – so splendid! -- to which he appended a cadenza* which really frightened me, for such playing has never been nor can be: he brought his fingers up to only a straw's distance from the bridge, leaving no room for the bow-- and that on all four strings with imitations and incredible speed."

venice
Venice
  • City/state
    • Social and cultural capital of Italy
  • Tourism
    • Festivals required music
      • Christmas
      • Carnival
vivaldi the traveler
Vivaldi the traveler...
  • Work as performer
    • Amassed great wealth
      • poorly invested
  • International success
    • Paris, Amsterdam^, Vienna, Rome and Dresden
1 st professional musician
1st Professional* musician
  • Appointment (Patronage*)
    • Church and/or state
  • Music Publishing
    • Dedications*
vivaldi the priest
Vivaldi the priest...
  • “The Red Priest”
    • Asthma?
  • Weekly musical opportunities
the ospedele della pieta
The Ospedeledella Pieta*
  • “Hospital of Pity (Compassion)”

...as it looked then...

job duties
Job duties
  • Teacher
    • Violin, viola, flute, oboe, harpsichord and voice
  • Composer
    • Two concerti* every month for public performances
performances
Performances
  • Most famous & admired orchestra in all of Venice!
    • Highly competitive market
    • Popularity, fame and fortune
  • Large, heavy curtains.
    • Why?
who are the girls
Who are the girls?
  • Orphans?
  • Illegitimate?
  • Physically challenged?
departure
Departure...
  • Why?
    • Popularity
    • Travel
    • Duties included Mass
    • Love?
vivaldi the lover
Vivaldi the lover...
  • Anna Giro
    • 30+ years difference
    • Accomplished singer
    • Scandal!
vivaldi s music
Vivaldi’s music
  • Prolific
    • 500 concerti*, 40 cantatas*, 52+ operas*, 60+ sacred works
      • Where is all the rest?
        • Who claims ownership?
vivaldi and opera
Vivaldi and opera*
  • Six opera houses in Venice
    • Intense competition
  • Diversion from sacred* music
  • Profit
    • Ownership
  • Fame
    • Social aspect
instrumental music
Instrumental Music
  • Attention to individual, unique timbre* of each instrument
  • Unusual and new instruments
sonata or sonata allegro
Sonata* (or, “Sonata Allegro”)*
  • Three parts
    • Allegro* (Fast)
    • Adagio* or Andante* (Slow)
    • Allegro* (Fast)
the four seasons 1718 1720
“The Four Seasons”* 1718-1720
  • "The Contest of Harmony and Invention”*
  • Program music*
  • Four violin concerti*
    • Three movements each
program music
Program Music*
  • Non-vocal (instrumental only)
  • Musical depiction of a non-musical event, person or thing.
    • Todentanz (The Dance of Death)

Franz Liszt

    • Don Quixote

Richard Strauss

    • The War of 1812 (“The 1812 Overture”)

Peter Tchaikovsky

spring 1 st movement
“Spring” (1st movement)

Springtime is upon us.

The birds celebrate her return with festive song,and murmuring streams are softly

caressed by the breezes.

Thunderstorms, those heralds of Spring, roar,

casting their dark mantle over heaven,

Then they die away to silence, and the birds take up their charming songs once more.

springtime is upon us
“Springtime is upon us...”
  • Ritornello*
    • Part A
    • Part B
      • Complete
      • Partial
      • Variations
murmuring streams breezes
“...murmuring streams...Breezes…”
  • Low strings
    • Ebb/flow motion

Ritornello

thunderstorms roar
“...Thunderstorms... roar...”
  • Thunder
    • Orchestra
  • Lightening
    • Violinist
      • Virtuoso displays
  • Question and Answer

Ritornello

legacy
Legacy....
  • Died penniless in 1741
    • Musically obsolete
    • Forgotten by the musical world for almost two hundred years
20 th century discoveries
20th Century Discoveries
  • 1926
    • Monastery in Piedmont (region), Italy
      • 14 folios
  • 1930
    • 300 concertos for various instruments nd
    • 18 operas
    • 100+ vocal-instrumental piece
rv numbers
RV Numbers
  • Peter Ryom
    • Ryom Verzeichnis
      • « Ryom’s Numbers »
    • Répertoire des oeuvres d'Antonio Vivaldi
    • Completed in 1977