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2013-2014 Science Vocabulary
Ecosystems Vocabulary #3 • Ecosystem: complex, interactive systems that include both biological communities (biotic) and physical (abiotic) components of the environment • Organism: aliving thing • Population: a group of the same type of organism living in a certain area • Biotic factor: any of the organisms living in an ecosystem • Abiotic factor:nonliving things in an ecosystem that may be chemical or physical • Habitat: the non-living things (abiotic factors) within an environment
Ecological Relationships Vocab 12 • Herbivore (plant eater) Carnivore (meat eater) Omnivore (plant & meat eater) • Producer – makes their own food • Consumer – gets their food by eating other organisms • Decomposer – absorbs nutrients from dead organisms • Symbiosis – arelationship where two organisms live together • Mutualism – a relationship where both organisms benefit • Parasitism – a relationship where one organism (parasite) benefits and the other (host) is harmed • Commensalism – a relationship where one organism benefits while the other is unaffected
Microbes Vocab 21 Copy onto Page 21, then create Flashcards – due Mon 10/21/13 1. Microbe – any organism or near life form that cannot be seen with the naked eye 2. Virus – A tiny non-living particle that enters and reproduces inside a living cell. They are composed of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) and a protein coat. 3. Host – organism that provides energy (Example: human, dog, tomato) 4. Parasite – an organism that is living on or in a host cell that causes harm to the host 5. Bacteria – single-celled organisms that lack a nucleus, prokaryotic 6. Prokaryotic – organism that lacks a nucleus and other cell structures 7. Fungi – a eukaryotic organism that has cell walls, use spores to reproduce, and is a heterotroph that feeds by absorbing its food. 8. Eukaryotic – a cell that has true nucleus and membrane bound organelles
Infectious Disease Vocab 24 Infectious Disease – disease caused by the presence of a living thing in the body. Pathogen – a microbe that causes disease in an organism Carrier – a PERSON with a disease that they can pass on to other organisms Vector – an ANIMAL that carries and transmits a disease Vaccine – substance entered in the body to produce immunity (prevent getting sick) Antibiotic – medicines used to kill or slow growth in bacteria that cause disease Anti viral- Medicines used to treat a virus once a person is sick but must be given with a few days of exposure. Epidemic – illness or health-related issue that is showing up in more cases than would normally be expected. (Ex: Malaria) Pandemic – wide spread (usually worldwide) outbreak of an infectious disease (Ex: Influenza)
Matter Vocabulary pg 2 • Matter – anything that has mass and takes up space • Solid – state of matter with definite shape and a definite volume • Liquid – state of matter with no definite shape only definite volume • Gas- a state of matter with no definite shape or volume • Plasma- ionized gas • Element – a substance consisting of the same atoms that cannot be broken apart any further • Compound – A substance that is made up of two or more DIFFERENT atoms • Mixture – combination of two or more pure substances (compounds) • Homogenous – mixtures that look the same all the way through • Heterogeneous – mixtures that do NOT look the same all the way through
Periodic Table Vocab page 8 Atomic number: the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. This number identifies the atom. Mass number: the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. Mass number = protons + neutrons Valence #: The number of outermost electrons in an atom. Periodic Table: An arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic numbers that demonstrates the periodic patterns that occur among the elements. Period: Elements in a horizontal row on the periodic table Group: Elements in a vertical column on the periodic table; also called a family Metal: An element below and to the left of the stair-step line of metalloids; about 80% of the known elements are metals. Nonmetal: An element above and to the right of the stair-step line of metalloids. Metalloid: An element with properties of both metals and nonmetals located along the stair-step line on the right side of the periodic table.
Physical and Chemical Changes Vocab 17 • Physical Properties- a description; can be observed or measured without changing it • Physical Change – change occurs without changing the identity of the substance • Chemical Properties- a description of matter based on its ability to change into new matter with different properties. These can only be observed during a chemical reaction. • Chemical Change – One or more substances are changed into new substance that have new different properties.
Chemical Reactions Vocab Page 20 • Reactant: The matter you start with in a chemical reaction • Product: The matter you end up with after a chemical reaction • Precipitate: an insoluble substance that is produced as result of a chemical reaction • Law of Conservation of Mass: Matter cannot be created or destroyed, it can only change forms. The mass of the reactants = the mass of the products.