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# GAS Laws chapter 10 p303 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

GAS Laws chapter 10 p303. KMT Kinetic Molecular Theory 1. Gases consist of particles far apart. Collisions between particles are elastic. elastic meaning = no net loss of KE Gas particles are in constant, rapid, random motion

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### GAS Laws chapter 10 p303

KMT

Kinetic Molecular Theory

1. Gases consist of particles far apart.

Collisions between particles are elastic.

elastic meaning = no net loss of KE

Gas particles are in constant, rapid, random motion

No forces of attraction or repulsion between gas particles.

Average KE of a gas depends on Temperature of gas.

Ideal Gases: an imaginary gas that

perfectly fits all assumptions of KMT.

(Noble gases) closest thing to it

Real Gases: does not behave completely

to the laws and theories of the KMT.

Volume: liters and milliliters

Temperature: Kelvin K K = 273 + oC

convert 42oC =

126oC=

212oC=

Zero degrees Kelvin = absolute zero

coldest temperature

never reachable

Volume: Temperature:

# of moles or molecules

avagadro’s number 6.022 x 1023 molecules per mole

22.4 liters per mole

@ STP

STP === standard temperature pressure

1 atm at OoC or 273K

P. 310 Pressure: atm atmosphere of pressure

1 atm = 760 mm Hg = 760 torr = 101.3 kpa

Sea level pressure = 1 atm or 760mm Hg or 101.3 kpa

STP === standard temperature pressure

1 atm at OoC or 273K

Average pressure in Denver Colorado is 0.083atm.

Exress in mm Hg and kpa

Boyles Law: keeping temperature same

pressure up = volume down

pressure down = volume up

P1V1 = P2V2

When cap comes off …pressure goes down

= volume goes up.

Video under pressure

Charles Law: keeping pressure same

temperature up volume up

temperature down volume down

Balloon in freezer vs balloon next to heat

Car tires in winter vs. tires in summer

V1 = V2

T1 T2

Video wok/baloons

Gay-Lussac’s law : keeping volume same

Temperature up = pressure up

Temperature down = pressure down

Throw hair spray can in fire

P1 P2

T1 T2

video crushing cans

Combined Gas Laws: all 3 put together

P1V1 = P2V2

T1 T2

Worksheet 11.0

1)A scuba diver at the beach has his 24 L air tank sitting outside in a temperature of 30 degree Celsius and the tank pressure registers at 12atm. As he dives down into the ocean the temperature of the water and tank drop to 10 degrees Celsius. What is the new pressure of the scuba tanks?

P1V1 = P2V2

T1 T2

Involves P,V,T & …number of moles of gas

PV = nRT

All units must be : P = atm

V = liters

T = Kelvin

n = #of moles

R = .0821 liters x atm

moles x K

R is a constant …….. Like pi is a constant 3.14 ws.11.21

Total pressure of a mixture of gases =

sum of partial pressure of the component gases.

Ptotal = P1 + P2 + P3 + P4 …

• If 5 gases in a cylinder each exert 1atm, what is the total pressure exerted by the gases?

2. Three samples of gas each exert 740mm Hg in separate

2-L tanks. What pressure do they exert if they are all placed in a single 2-L tank.

3. A mixture of four gases exerts a total pressure of 860 mmHg. Gases A and B each exert 220 mmHg. Gas C exerts 110mmHg. What pressure is exerted by gas D?

Diffusion & Effusion p. 351 pressure exerted by the gases?

KMT: 4- No significant forces of attraction or repulsion between gas particles

So…..gas particles can flow easily past one another

3- Gas particles are in constant, rapid, random motion. They have KE.

So…..random motion of gas particles causes the gas particles to evenly mix.

Diffusion pressure exerted by the gases? =movement of one material through another material.“Cooking cookies in the kitchen…others can smell it upstairs in the bedroom.”

Rate of Diffusion depends on mass

---Skinny people can run faster than fat people---

---So can molecules---

Lighter molecule diffuse faster than heavy molecules @ STP pressure exerted by the gases?

Of the following molecules which would diffuse faster?

• Oxygen or Neon

2 Sulfur dioxide or carbon dioxide

• Chlorine gas or krypton gas

List the following gases in order of increasing rate of effusion. (a) He (b) Xe (c) HCl (d)Cl2

0 effusion.

of

5

The two gases in the figure below are simultaneously injected into opposite ends of the tube. They should just begin to mix closet to which labeled point?H2SSO2

• A

• B

• C

### Ch. 11 Gas Laws p. 333 effusion.

Stoichiometry of gases

1 mole of oxygen has 6.022 x 1023 molecules

1 mole of hydrogen has 6.022 x 1023 molecules

1 mole of oxygen has a mass of 32 grams

1 mole of hydrogen has a mass of 2 grams

(because diatomic)

Avagadro has a standard molar volume for gases

1 mole of any gas has a volume of 22.4 liters

Ws. 11.11

0 effusion.

of

5

A chemical reaction produces 0.068 mol oxygen gas. What volume in liters is occupied by this gas at STP?

0 effusion.

of

5

The volume of a sample of hydrogen is 798mL and it exerts 621mmHg pressure at 5.00oC. What volume does it occupy at STP?

0 effusion.

of

5

At STP a sample of neon gas occupies 550 cm3. How many moles of neon gas does this represent?

0 effusion.

of

5

When the pressure exerted on a confined gas at constant temperature is doubled, the volume of the gas is…

• Doubled

• Halved

• Tripled

• quartered

0 effusion.

of

5

Fluorine gas reacts violently with water to produce hydrogen fluoride and ozone. What volume of HF would be produced by the complete reaction of 36Lof fluorine gas?