1. Expansion of the Universe Galaxies are moving away from each other. Earlier in time they were closer together.
2. Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) Low levels of microwaves can be detected anywhere in space. Leftover from the Big Bang that has been GREATLY Red Shifted.
3. Nebula Temperatures • Distant nebula are billions of light years away. • More distant nebula are hotter than closer nebula. • Distant nebula are “younger” and show us that the earlier universe was MUCH hotter than now.
4. Types of Elements in the Universe • Most of the elements in the universe are: • ~74% Hydrogen • ~26% Helium • ~<1% All the other elements (C, N, O, Pb…) • These elemental proportions could only occur if the universe began in a very hot, dense state and quickly expanded and cooled.
Learning More About the Big Bang • CERN: European Organization for Nuclear Research. • Since particles in the early universe experienced much higher temperatures than today… • They may have acted differently than they do now. • Moved faster and collided with each other at higher energies.
Learning More About the Big Bang (cont.) • These hot conditions do not exist anymore we can attempt to recreate them using a particle accelerator. • Shoots a beam of fast moving particles and has them collide together. • Large Hadron Collider (LHC): accelerates protons close to the speed of light. • About how fast particles moved right after the Big Bang.