MANIFEST DESTINY • 1840’s expansion of the west exploded. Felt moving westward was predestined by God • Reasons – abundance of land, new markets, new opportunities, spread Christianity • "(It is) ..our manifest destiny to over spread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty" In 1845 these words were written by John O'Sullivan, a democrat leader and editor newspaper
1835- Texans claimed independence from Mexico - war -Remember the ALAMO(1836) The Mexican army killed all 187 US defenders Then Sam Houston and his rebels attacked a Mexican army and cried “Remember the Alamo” which ended the war and Texas gained independence TEXAS INDEPENDENCE
WAR WITH MEXICO • 1845 –Texas entered the Union • Pres. Polk –wanted all the land to the Rio Grande – • Tried peace talks – Mexico refused • Called for War • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo -Mexico agreed to border at the Rio Grande plus US gained NM and CA The US paid Mexico 15 million for the land.
CA gold rush • 1848- Gold found • Forty -niners • CA population rose from 400 (1848) to 44,000 (1850) to 100,000(1859) • Revolutionized California’s economy
Kansas – Nebraska Act of 1854 (By Stephen Douglas) • Kansas would be a slave state and Nebraska would be a free state. • Totally wrecked the Missouri Compromise • Technically – it would be decided by popular sovereignty
Bleeding Kansas Issue • Slavery in Kansas • People are divided and angry • 1856 – US Senate • Massachusetts Senator Charles Sumner – made an ugly speech about the South (especially SC) • A SC senator – Preston Brooks gets up and strikes Sumner with a cane!!
Sumner vs. Brooks Cont • Brooks resigned his seat, but was reelected • Sumner had to leave for treatment in Europe • The Kansas problem spilled over into the Senate.
REFORMING AMERICA SOCIETY • Second Great Awakening • 1790’s to 1830’s a Christian movement that focus on revivals
SLAVERY AND ABOLITION • ABOLITION- the movement to free African Americans from slavery
White abolitionist called for immediate freedom of slaves In the very first issue of his anti-slavery newspaper, the Liberator, William Lloyd Garrison stated, "I do not wish to think, or speak, or write, with moderation. . . . I am in earnest -- I will not equivocate -- I will not excuse -- I will not retreat a single inch -- AND I WILL BE HEARD William Lloyd Garrison
Escaped from bondage in 1831 at age 21 Gifted orator, editor, writer Critic of slavery through His newspaper, The North Star Looked at politics to change slavery FREDERICK DOUGLASSThe most prominent black abolitionist
Turner’s REBELLION • Slaves rebelled against their conditions led by Nat Turner, a VA slave in August 1831 • Turner and 50 others attacked 4 plantations and killed around 60 • Eventually Turner and followers were captured and killed • Importance- scared slaveholders and encouraged the abolitionist movement
Women’s REFORM • Women played important roles in reform: • Abolitionists • Temperance (effort to prohibit alcohol) • Education • Health Care
Women’s rights emerge • Seneca Falls – women’s conference calling for the right to vote • Sojourner Truth – abolitionist, sought equal rights for women and African Americans
UNDERGROUND RAILROAD • Secret network of people who would help slaves to freedom • Harriet Tubman helped over 300 slaves to freedom
READING NOTES • COMPLETE THE READING NOTES AND MAP USING THE COPIED TEXT