By the end of the presentation you should be able to answer the following questions…. • What were the 4 underlying causes of World War One? • Why is German Unification considered a threat by many European nations? • What is the relationship between Russia and Serbia? • How did imperialism contribute to the start of World War One? • Why is there a tremendous increase in military spending before the beginning of World War One? • What are the two main alliances called? • Which countries are the main members of each of the alliance?
ALLIANCES MILITARISM NATIONALISM IMPERIALISM
NATIONALISM • Nationalism — devotion to the interests, beliefs, values and culture of one’s nation • • Nationalism led to competition, antagonism between nations • • Many fear Germany’s growing power in Europe • • Various ethnic groups resent domination, want independence (Balkans) • • Russia sees itself as protector of all Slavic peoples (i.e – Serbs)
The Congress of Vienna, held after Napoleon's exile to Elba, aimed to sort out problems in Europe. Delegates from Britain, Austria, Prussia and Russia (the winning allies) decided upon a new Europe but the principles of nationalism were ignored in favor of preserving the peace. It left both Germany and Italy as divided states.
Strong nationalist elements led to the unification of Italy in 1861 and Germany in 1871. The settlement at the end of the Franco-Prussian War (1871) left France angry at the loss of Alsace-Lorraine to Germany and keen to regain their lost territory. Large areas of both Austria-Hungary and Serbia were home to differing nationalist groups, all of whom wanted freedom from the nation-states in which they lived.
NATIONALISM: German Unification • Bismarck was a strong nationalist and centered his policies on the unification of the Germanic peoples. (language, geographical, cultural ---- Pan-Germanism) • Policy of “blood and iron”…. • Wars of Unification (the blood): • Danish War • Austro-Prussian War • Franco-Prussian War • French fear & resentment • loss of land to Germany; want it back • Industrial and Imperial Expansion (the iron). • education of the people “the Fatherland” • free trade among German states • build industrial and military might • build an empire to rival other European nations • After German unification (1871), was appointed chief minister of Germany by Kaiser Wilhelm I. Otto Von Bismarck – “The Iron Chancellor”
NATIONALISM: Pan-Slavism Was a movement in the mid 19th and early 20th century aimed at unity of all the Slavic peoples. The main focus was in the Balkans where the South Slavs had been ruled and oppressed for centuries by the two great empires, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire. This was an age when many Slavic nations wanted to assert their power and independence. In Europe, Slavs wanted to be free of Austrian rule. A-H Empire Homelands of the Slavic peoples of Europe. South Slavs are highlighted in dark green, East Slavs in medium green, and West Slavs in light green.
IMPERIALISM Imperialism – when one country takes over another country economically and politically. European nations building empires and imposing their will. • European nations needed resources, raw materials, and foreign markets after the increase in manufacturing caused by the Industrial Revolution. • Many nations competed for colonial expansion in Africa and Asia. • Britain and France dominate expansion • Germany and Italy are late to industrialize and gain colonies • Germany wants to be a dominant power in the world; starts to compete for colonies • In the Middle East, the crumbling Ottoman Empire was alluring to Austria-Hungary, the Balkans and Russia.
IMPERIALISM IN AFRICA Before 1800, Africa was controlled by numerous African states. By 1914, all of Africa, with exception of 2 African nations, was under the control or oversight of European powers.
IMPERIALISM IN ASIA - 1900 Which powerful European nation does not have a colony in Asia?
How does each of these cartoons illustrate the policy of imperialism? What nations are represented in the cartoons?
“Colossus of Rhodes” Cecil Rhodes was the driving force behind British imperialism in Africa. Question: “Why is Cecil Rhodes depicted this way?”
MILITARISM Militarism – the belief or desire of a government or people that a country should develop and maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or promote national interests; glorification of the military. • Cost of building, defending empires leads to more military spending • By 1890, Germany has strongest army on European continent • competes with Britain for sea power • leads other nation-states around the globe to join in an arms race • France is worried about German invasion
The Dreadnought: The first of its kind, the British Royal Navy's Dreadnought had a huge impact when launched in 1906. Her design had two revolutionary features; an 'all-big-gun' armament scheme and steam turbine propulsion. The arrival of the dreadnoughts renewed the naval arms race, principally between Britain and Germany but reflected worldwide, as the new class of warships became a crucial symbol of national power.
ALLIANCES Alliance – An alliance is an agreement between two or more parties, made in order to advance common goals and to secure common interests. • the rise in nationalism across Europe and the increase in militarism led nation-states to seek security in numbers • deterrence • stable balance of power • alliance system fails in its intended purpose • pulls one nation after another into war
Triple Alliance: • also called the Central Powers • military alliance among Germany, Austria–Hungary, and Italy that lasted from 1882 until the start of World War I in 1914 • the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) and Bulgaria join the Central Powers (1914) • Italy leaves to join the Triple Entente (1915) • Triple Entente: • also called the Allied Powers • military alliance among Britain, France, and Russia • Italy joins the Allied Powers (1915) • U.S.A joins (1917) • Russia leaves (1917)
REVIEW • Can you answer the questions now….? • What were the 4 underlying causes of World War One? • Why is German Unification considered a threat by many European nations? • What is the relationship between Russia and Serbia? • How did imperialism contribute to the start of World War One? • Why is there a tremendous increase in military spending before the beginning of World War One? • What are the two main alliances called? • Which countries are the main members of each of the alliance?