Rain Water Harvesting - Need of an hour…. RWH - How Far It Can Solve The Problems Of Water Scarcity. Prepared by: Raju, Deepti and Ruchir Jeevantirth, Juna Koba, Gandhinagar-382009 firstname.lastname@example.org. Looming Danger.
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RWH - How Far It Can Solve The Problems Of Water Scarcity
Raju, Deepti and Ruchir
Jeevantirth, Juna Koba, Gandhinagar-382009
By the year 2030, over 60% of all people, or some 4.9 billion, will live in cities- a virtual time bomb waiting to explode- in terms of water, sanitation and the health hazards.
Source: WHO Global Water Supply and Sanitation Assessment 2000
Total un-served: 1.1 billion
Source: Human Development Repost 2006
Some 1.8 million children die each year as a result of diarrhea —which is 4,900 deaths a day.
India has 16% of world’s population while having only 2% of land and 4% of fresh water resources
Water availability / Per Person
Year Cu. M.
India: 5,87,000 Villages
Can harvest Runoff from average access of 340 hectares or a rainfall endowment of 3.75 billion liters of water. (Source-EXCEL)
POTENTIAL OF RWH IS ENORMOUS
Every third year is a drought year…
North Gujarat is Absolutely Water Scarce, Saurashtra and Kutch are Water Scarce.
With all the utilizable surface water and 90% ground water harnessed, the gap will be around 11.5 BCM in 2025
Don’t Link the Rivers,
Link People with the Rivers!
Eastern hilly area of ARAVALI, VINDHYACHAL-SAPUTARA and SAHYADRI provided water through BANAS, SABARMATI, MAHI, NARMADA, and TAPI to Main Land of Gujarat.
Source: Sabar Sena, JEEVANTIRTH, Gujarat
6,000 Village Tanks were built in North Gujarat during SiddhrajJaysingh era.
Sadly neglected water tanks has lost their utility.
Traditional methods were scrapped by vested interests.
100 years back 11 to 12 lacks village water tanks existed in India.
Over extraction of GW has affected about 4.06 million ha. (21% of the state) in 74 talukas of 14 districts. (57 talukas fall in “Dark Zone”)
Source: Gujarat Ecology Commission
Struggle for Ground Water.
Umedpur village of Sabarkantha spent unorganisedly Rs. 64 lacks in 40 years.
1960-’70 Well deepening 12 lacks
1970-’80 Oil Engines 12 lacks
1970-’85 H/V Holes in Wells 8 lacks
1980-’85 Electric Motors 15 lacks
1985-’99 Tube-wells 17 lacks
Dharoi DW Scheme running in loss, 40 crore electricity bill unpaid.
DW problems persist in 42% villages where Narmada pipeline water has reached.
(Source: Civic Monitoring of the Largest DW Projects in the World -Report)
Investment in Rural DW Supply in Gujarat
1982-’99 Sate plan 860.36 Crore
Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme418.62 Crore
Scarcity Water Supply Plan 843.75 Crore
Narmada Canal Based Water Supply Project 7,400 Crore
Running Cost will be 511.86 Cr. Yearly!
Water Harvesting is the process of the intercepting storm water runoff from a surface and putting it to beneficial use.
From a tree trunk.
Rain water is harvested from big tree trunks using banana fiber tied around the tree trunk and directed to a large clay pot. This water can be put to domestic use or for irrigating crops.
The Simplest form of RWH
Anil Agarwal conceptualized and edited the CSE publications Dying Wisdom – which explores the tremendous potential of India's traditional water harvesting systems – and Making Water Everybody's Business - which documents water harvesting technologies that are being practiced even today by communities in various parts of the country.
We do not change our consumption pattern.
Let’s make a paradigm shift from surface storage system to under ground storage system, flood irrigation to soil moisture technique, wasteful consumption pattern to judicial use of water.
We change our Life Style.
The earth has so much water that it can cover up 3,000 meter thick layer on its surface!
The nature has not changed its method of giving fresh water over a millions of years…
-AnupamMishra, Gandhi Peace Foundation, Delhi.
We need to recognize that the source of all water on earth is not the river, is not the underground aquifer, is not the lake, well or stream. Rain is the source of all water.
Put harvested water to beneficial use
Adjust and Maintain your systems as needed
Start managing water at the top of the watershed (Ridge to Valley)
Create multiple small watersheds
Collect, Slow and Infiltrate the water
Prepare for Overflow
Mulch to reduce evaporation
Be Self Reliant!
Improve Water Quality!
is a product of
a given of
Clay house at SANA’A
with WH / Saving System
3,000 years old RWH system in YEMEN
Rajasthan manages the water it receives so parsimoniously, one can say, drop by drop.
Rain Water Harvesting is a applicable everywhere
from Cherapunji to Sahara Desert
The Rain Water Harvesting System needs to be designed
in a way that it does not occupy large space
for collecting and recharge system
IN – SITU CONSERVATION STORAGE IN
HARVESTING IN AQUIFERS SOIL PROFILE
FOR DIRECT FOR GW FOR SOIL MOISTURE
UTILIZATION AUGMENTATION BUILD UP
To support single or multiple plants,
(infiltration in 12 hr. to avoid mosquito problems)
Rock filled trenches to encourage rapid storm water infiltration through the sides, ends and bottom of the trench where soil and water meet.
In alluvial areas where permeable rocks are exposed on the land surface or at very shallow depth, or where permeable strata is available at shallow depth.
WH can be done through recharge Pit or Trench.
Public Rights-of-Way Example
To construct a semi permeable barrier to slow, but not to stop, the flow of storm water in a small water course
To optimize Water Harvesting by reducing evaporation from soil
In Gabion structure a small bund across the stream is made by putting locally available boulders in a mesh of steel wires and anchored to the stream banks
Recharge Wells are specially constructed where large quantities of surface runoff is available within a very short period of heavy rainfall for storm water management.
If the aquifer available at greater depth -say more than 20m- Recharge Tubewell is constructed to augment deep aquifer.
Artificial recharge to groundwater is a process by which the ground water reservoir is augmented at a rate exceeding that obtaining under natural conditions or replenishment. Any man-made scheme or facility that adds water to an aquifer may be considered to be an artificial recharge system.
A sub-surface dam intercepts or obstructs the flow of an aquifer and reduces the variation of the level of the GW table upstream.
Cover disturbed soil to reduce erosion
Create and plant a shallow depression
Allows for rainfall infiltration
Low traffic surfaces (driveways, parking lots, walk ways)
Slow water en route to streams to reduce flooding.
Clean water en route to streams to reduce pollution.
Growing of trees in arid regions
Soil water evaporation using solar energy.
Pit size ~ 1m X 1m X 0.6 m
100% seedlings survival. Five yr. data on 1000 m2. Leucaena, Prosopis and Neem grown. Avg. water prod. 300 ml/d per pit.
Given to NDDB by NARI,Pune. Need for large scale experiments.
Do The Dew!!!
DEW Harvest to supplement DW sources in Arid Coastal Belt of Kutch
Dew yield from Ashramshala – Kothara
(150 Sq. M. Sheet Roof – 2004)
Month Yield (Lit.) Dew Nights
March 393 18 23 liters per
April 487 21 dew – nights.
Source: Dew Harvest – GirjaSharan
Rain Dance –
The deliberate treatment of certain clouds or cloud systems with the intent of affecting the precipitation process(es) within those clouds.
New source of water?
Artificial Rain Making! - Cloud Seeding?
Remember Atmospheric Vapor is only 0.001% of the total water in the hydrosphere
Plants & Vegetables
Alberta Sustainable House
The World is facing water, energy and food crisis, but everything is available in my house!
Source: ASH Calgary, Alberta, CANADA
Straw Bale Wall Construction
Interior Non-Bearing Wall Framing maintains continuous air/vapor barriers
Water Efficient Toilet
Source: Airdie, Canada
Per Capita Roof Area
Don’t put all your efforts
on the backend!
GW Recharge & RWH: 400 Crore
‘Rural Water Supply’: 2,000 Crore
‘SardarSarovar’: 40,000 Crore
‘Narmada Canal Based DW Project’: 7,400 Crore
‘Kalpsar’ : 53,000 Crore
“SabarMata” gives blessings to all and motivates to join ‘Sabar Sena’ for Water Conservation